THE MALDIVE ISLANDS

THE THEEMUGE DARIKOLHU DYNASTY

GENEALOGY

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Fl ca 1007 Svasti Sri Bala Aditya Maha Radun [Balaadeetta], King of Deva Mahal, a son or relative of the Somavamsa King of Kalinja, in India. He served as a minister to his wife when Queen Regnant, but later succeeded her as full ruler. The Cholas, under Raja Raja I Mummudi-Chola, invaded and occupied the two northern atolls of Malikatholhu and Thiladunmathi during his reign, before 1010. Although regarded as the first of the Lunar race, all the succeeding rulers were descendants of his marriage with Queen Damaha'ara. m. Svasti Sri Damaha'ara Maha Rehendi, Queen of Deva Mahal the last of the Solar Dynasty.
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Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun [Loakaabarana], King of Deva Mahal, a son or grandson of Svasti Sri Damaha'ara Maha Rehendi, Queen of Deva Mahal of the Solar Dynasty and her husband, Svasti Sri Bala Aditya Maha Radun [Balaadeetta], King of Deva Mahal, the first ruler of the Lunar race. He had issue, two sons:
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Svasti Sri Maha Sundura Maha Radun [Maasundura], King of Deva Mahal, elder son of Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of Deva Mahal. Succeeded on the death of his father. He had issue, a daughter:
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Svasti Sri Buwana Ananda Maha Radun [Bovanaananda], King of Deva Mahal, younger son of Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of Deva Mahal. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother. He had issue, a son and a daughter:
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# The tarikh (1692 AD) seems to be at variance with the Isdhoo lomafanu (1197 AD). The former describes Buvanaabarana as the son of the sister of Sultan Muhammad al-Adil. On the other hand, the Isdhoo lomafanu describes him as the younger brother of Tribhuwana. Since the Isdhoo lomafanu dates from just thirteen years after Buvanaabarana's death, we must accept it as being correct. Perhaps the variance could be reconciled by assuming the following: Tribhuwana's mother, Henevi Ma'ava'a Kilage, married more than once. She had a daughter named Mulee Ma'ava'a Kilege by one husband, half-sister to Tribhuwana, then had Tribhuwana by another husband. Mulee Ma'ava'a Kilege, her daughter by the first husband subsequently married her widower (or former second husband) and they produced Muthey Kalaminja, who succeeded as Buvanaabarana.
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1105 - 1142 Svasti Sri Somavamsa Adipati Sri Theemuge Sri Maha Parama Aditya Maha Radun [Maabarana] ##, King of the Maldive Islands, son of Svasti Sri Buwana Ananda Maha Radun, King of Deva Mahal. Succeeded on the death of his father as King of Deva Mahal, ca 1105. He defeated the Cholas who ruled over Malikatholhu and Thiladunmathi in 1117, proclaimed himself as ruler over those fourteen atolls and two thousand islands, and unified the kingdom once more. Established his capital on Malikaddudhemedhu. He d. before 26th July 1142.
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## Some modern accounts associate this ruler with the legendary tale about Koimala Kalo and the account of the settlement of Malé by immigrants from Sri Lanka. However, there is no evidence whatever connecting the two individuals. Maloney relates at least five different Koimala myths prevelant in the islands, only one of which identifies him as Maabarana.  The story has certain affinities with the Sinhalese Vijaya foundation myth. The "Kitab fi Athaari Meedoo el-Qadimiyyeh" clearly states that Maabarana was the son of Bovanaananda.
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1142 - 1166 Sultan Muhammad al-Adil ibnu 'Abdu'llah Svasti Sri Sandanayaka Tribhuwana Aditya Maha Radun [Darumavanta Rasgefa'anu], Lord of Two Thousand Islands, King of the Maldive Islands, son of Henevi Ma'ava'a Kilage. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, King Maha Parama of the Lunar race, before 26th July 1142. Converted Islam, 7th July 1153*. He went on pilgrimage to Mecca before 28th October 1166 and never returned**.
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* Ibn Batuta, unlike the tarikh, states that the ruler who converted to Islam was named Sultan Ahmad Shanfuraza, and that his conversion was due to 'Abu'l Barakat, a Berber from the Maghrab. He quotes from an inscription engraved on the pulpit of the principal mosque in Malé, which read (in 1343/4) "Sultan Ahmad Shanfuraza has received the true faith at the hands of 'Abu' l-Baraka'at the Berber, the Maghrabin". The tarikh ascribes the conversion of the first Muslim monarch, Muhammad Darumavanta Rasgefa'anu, to a shaikh from Tabriz named Abul Rikab Yusuf Shams ud-din. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
** The Malabaris attacked Malé that year, causing widespread destruction and burning the capital. Furthermore, the Isdhoo lomafanu (1197 AD) unlike the tarikh (1692 AD) says that Buvanaabarana's reign ended nine years after he became king, making the year "when he became king" 1176, not 1166. It is possible that confusion reigned after the sack of the capial and dissappearance of the king and things took a while to settle down. Alternatively, Buvanaabarana may have became regent when his brother departed on the Haj, and he later assumed the crown only when it became certain that Muhammad would never return. In the latter case, 1176 could be the date of Buvanaabarana's coronation rather than his assumption of power. Either way, it is highly likely that a regency or interregnum occurred between 1166 and 1176. However, it is also clear from the Isdhoo lomafanu that not all dates used at the time adhered to Hijra reckoning. Certain important events, such as the construction of Mosques, dated from the Prophet's ascension to heaven. Consequently, there is an outside possibility that the conversion to Islam and Muhammad's Haj occurred eleven years later than the traditionally accepted Hijra date.
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1166 - 1185 Svasti Sri Buwana Parama Maha Radun [Buvanaabarana], King of the Maldive Islands, son of Mulee Ma'ava'a Kilege. Succeeded his elder brother, before 28th October 1166. Ascended the throne before 10th July 1176. He d. before 4th April 1185.
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1185 - 1193 Svasti Sarvalaksha Adipati Sri Dharmananda Maha Radun [Dharmaanandha], King of the Maldive Islands, son of Reki Hiriya Mava'a Kilage. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, before 4th April 1185. He d. before 7th January 1193.
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1193 - 1199 Svasti Srimant Soma Vanshuthudharana Kanaka Roapana Asallasthamba Sarvalakshadwipa Rakshana Bathudhura Bandara Bingihavidhya Vinoda Sakala Kalana Anurageyeswara Rathunakara Mani Makuta Maditha Srimant Gadannaditya Maha Radun [Fannaditta], Defender of the ten thousand islands. b. as Prince Dinei Kalaminja, son of Fahi Hiriya Mava'a Kilage. Succeeded on he death of his uncle, before 7th January 1193. He ordered the destruction of the Buddhist monastery on Isdhu in 1195 (before 5th December 1195 or in the third year of his reign), forcibly converted the islanders, took the surviving monks to Malé and had them executed. He subsequently constructed the Mosque at Isdhu, 1197. He d. before 23rd October 1199.
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1199 - 1214 Svasti Sri Dagata Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Dihai Kalaminja, son of Fahi Hiriya Mava'a Kilage. Succeeded his brother, before 23rd October 1199. He d. before 13th May 1214.
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1214 - 1232 Svasti Sri Dagata Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Wadi Kalaminja, son of Fahi Hiriya Mava'a Kilage. Succeeded his brother, before 13th May 1214. He d. before 7th October 1233, having had issue:
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1232 - 1258 Svasti Sri Radha Subarna Rana-ara Desvaru Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Valladio Kalaminja, son of Fahi Hiriya Mava'a Kilage. Succeeded his brother, before 7th October 1233. He d. before 8th January 1258.
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1258 - 1264 Svasti Sri Radha Subarna Vira Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Hudai Kalaminja, son of Hiriya Mava'a Kilage. Succeeded before 8th January 1258. He d. before 24th October 1264.
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1264 - 1266 Svasti Sri Loka Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Iyama Kalaminja, son of Volumidi Bodu Kilege, of Fehendu, by his wife, Hirati Kabadi Kilage. Succeeded before 24th October 1264. He d. or was deposed before 2nd October 1266.
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1266 - 1268 Svasti Sri Sanya Abaruna Maha Radun [Sultan 'Ali II], King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Hili Kalaminja, son of Vengehili Kalu, of Kendhu, by his wife, Aidigu Mava'a Kilage. Acceeded before 2nd October 1266. He d. or was deposed after a reign of one year and six months, before 10th Sepember 1268.
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1268 - 1269 Svasti Sri Madini Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Keimi Kalaminja, son of Aidigu Mava'a Kilage. Succeeded his brother, before 10th Sepember 1268. He d. or was deposed before 31st August 1269.
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1269 - 1278 Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Ra'aradha Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. as Prince Uddu Kalaminja, son of Svasti Sri Dagata Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, educ. privately. Succeeded, before 31st August 1269. He d. before 25th May 1278, having had issue:
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1278 - 1288 Sultan 'Ali III ibnu Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Aradha Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, elder son of Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Ra'aradha Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, before 25th May 1278. He d.s.p. before 5th February 1288.
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1288 - 1294 Sultan Yusuf ibnu Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Buwana Aditya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, younger son of Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Ra'aradha Subana Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his childless elder brother, before 5th February 1288. He d. before 21st November 1294, having had issue:
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1294 - 1302 Sultan Abul Fath Salah ud-din Salis al-Banjali ibnu Sultan Yusuf Svasti Sri Soma Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, elder son of Sultan Yusuf ibnu Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Buwana Aditya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, before 21st November 1294. He d. before 26th August 1302, having had issue:
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1302 - 1307 Sultan Daud ibnu Sultan Yusuf Svasti Sri Singha Buwana Maha Radun@, King of the Maldive Islands, younger son of Sultan Yusuf ibnu Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Buwana Aditya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, before 26th August 1302. He d.s.p.m. before 3rd July 1307, having had issue:
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@ Ibn Batuta states that Sultan Daud was the grandson of Sultan Ahmad Shanuraza, the sultan who converted to Islam. Thus Shanuraza must be clearly different from and a later sultan to Muhammad Darumavanta Rasgefa'anu. It is remakable that even in the tarikh, between the conversion of Muhammad 'Abdu'llah Darumavanta Rasgefa'anu and the grandfather of Sultan Daud, there are few if any Arabic names given either for the intervening rulers or their parents. It seems odd that the traditional titles should be carefully recorded but that the Arabic names should be lost so completely to history. Even in the case of the so-called Sultan Ali II, his name clearly appears as "Hili Kalaminja" in the original list of sultans submitted to H.C.B. Bell by his friend, Prime Minister Ibrahim Didi, in 1887. "Hili" subsequently appears in Bell's "The Maldive Islands" (1920) as "Hali", becoming "Ali" in his revised List B in that same publication. Also of interest is the freequent, and very un-Islamic, succession through female lines over the same period. Guillaume Adam, writing in his "Recueil des Historiens des Croisades" says that the islands had recently converted to Islam, "which is still not srongly established" (1316AD). Perhaps we should conclude that although a first conversion probably took place, its success was by no means universal. That, for a considerable period thereafter, a rival branch of the family continued to adhere to the old religion until a final, more succesful, conversion ensued under 'Abu'l-Baraka'at.
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1307 - 1341 Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, son of Sultan Abul Fath Salah ud-din Salis al-Banjali Svasti Sri Soma Subarna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his paternal uncle, before 3rd July 1307. m. (first) …m. (second) …(m. second, 1342, Sultan 'Abdu'llah Svasti Sri Dharma Aditya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands), daughter of Vizier Jamil ud-din Assinjari. He d. before 17th June 1341, having had issue, a son and three daughters:
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1341 - 1342 Sultan Abul Fath Shihab ud-din Ahmad ibnu Sultan 'Umar Svasti Sri Loka Abarunaditya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. b. ca 1326, son of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, before 17th June 1341. Reigned udner the regency of his step-father, the Vizier 'Abdu'llah bin Muhammad al-Hadhrami. He assumed full ruling powers on attaining his manhood, and exiled the former vizier to Suwaid. His immorality with the wives of his public officers and with courtezans promped opposition and eventual deposition in favour of his eldest sister, 1342 (the tarikh says 1348). Banished to Haladummati, where she subsequently had him assassinated. m. (not consumated) a daughter of Sultan Muhammad Jamil ud-din Svasti Sri Buwana Suriya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, by his first wife. m. a lady from Mulaku (m. second, at Malé, 1343 (div. 1344), as his third wife, 'Abu 'Abdu'llah Muhammd ibn Batuta).
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1342 - 1344 Malika Rehendi Khadija Svasti Sri Ra'ada Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands (first time) - see below.
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1344 - 1345 Sultan Muhammad Jamil ud-din Svasti Sri Buwana Suriya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. Grand Vizer to his wife until he deposed her and seized the throne before 15th May 1344. m. (first) …m. (second) Malika Rehendi Khadija Sri Ra'ada Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, eldest daughter of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. He d. at Malé, before 7th January 1345 o.s., having had issue by a son and a daughter by his first wife, and one child by the sultana:
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1345 - 1374 Malika Rehendi Khadija Svasti Sri Ra'ada Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands (second time) - see below.
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1374 - 1377 Sultan 'Abdu'llah Svasti Sri Dharma Aditya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, son of Muhammad al-Hadrami, educ. privately. He assumed the regency on behalf of his step-son after marrying his mother, ca 1342. Deposed by that prince when he attained manhood, and exiled to Suwaid. Vizer to his wife until he deposed her and seized the throne before 13th June 1374. m. (first) (div. ca 1342) a daughter of Sultan Muhammad Jamil ud-din Svasti Sri Buwana Suriya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. m. (second) ca 1342, the widow of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-din 'Umar ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands, daughter of Vizier Jamil ud-din Assinjari. m. (third) at Malé, 1345, as her second husband, Malika Rehendi Khadija Svasti Sri Ra'ada Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, eldest daughter of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-din 'Umar ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. He was k. in bed by Sultana Khadija, before 10th May 1377, having had issue:
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1342-1344, 1345-1374 & 1377-1380 Malika Rehendi Khadija Svasti Sri Ra'ada Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, eldest daughter of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. Styled Kamba'adi Kilege before her accession. Deposed her brother and seized the throne, 1342 (ruler when Ibn Batuta arrived in the islands in 1344). Briefly deposed by her husbands in 1344 and 1374, but whom she soon had assassinated and resumed control, before 10th May 1377. m. (first) Sultan Muhammad al-Jamil Svasti Sri Buwana Suriya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands (d. at Malé, before 7th January 1345) - see above. m. (second) at Malé, 1345, Sultan 'Abdu'llah Svasti Sri Dharma Aditya Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands (k. in bed by his wife, before 10th May 1377) - see above. She d. at Malé, before 8th April 1380, having had issue:
  • 1) A child born posthumously to Sultan Muhammad Jamil ud-din, shortly after 7th January 1345 o.s.
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    1380 - 1381 Malika Rehendi Fatima Svasti Sri Somu Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, third and youngest daughter of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. Styled Ra'adafathi Kamba'adi Kilege before her accession. Succeeded on the death of her elder sister, before 8th April 1380. Abdicated in favour of her husband, before 28th March 1381. m. 1380, Muhammad Thakurufa'anu, of Ma'akurat, who succeeded as Sultan Muhammad Sri Suddha Abaruna Maha Radhun, King of the Maldive Islands - see below.
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    1381 - 1385 Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Suddha Abaruna Maha Radhun, King of the Maldive Islands, son of Kaulanna Kilage, of Ma'akurati, S. Ma'alosmadulu Atoll. Proclaimed ruler on the abdication of his wife, before 28th March 1381. m. Malika Rehendi Fatima Svasti Sri Somu Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, third and youngest daughter of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. He d. before 12th February 1385, having had issue, a daughter:
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    1385 - 1388 Malika Rehendi Dh'ainu Svasti Sri Varana Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, daughter of Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Suddha Abaruna Maha Radhun, King of the Maldive Islands, by his wife, Malika Rehendi Fatima Svasti Sri Suvama Abaruna Maha Radhun, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, youngest daughter of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands. Styled Kamba'adi Kilege before her accession. Succeeded on the death of her father, before 12th February 1385. Forced to renounce power and abdicate in favour of her husband, as a female ruler was unacceptable to the clerics, before 31st December 1388. m. Sultan 'Abdu'llah II Sri Subama Abaruna Maha Radhun, King of the Maldive Islands - see below.
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    1388  Sultan 'Abdu'llah II Svasti Sri Somu Abaruna Maha Radhun, King of the Maldive Islands. Procliamed ruler on the abdication of his wife, before 31st December 1388. He reigned for one month. m. Malika Rehendi Dh'ainu Svasti Sri Varana Abaruna Maha Rehendi, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, daughter of Sultan Muhammad Svasti Sri Suddha Abaruna Maha Radhun, King of the Maldive Islands, by his wife, Malika Rehendi Fatima Svasti Sri Suvama Abaruna Maha Radhun, Sultana of the Maldive Islands, youngest daughter of Sultan Abul Fath Jalal ud-dunya wa ud-din 'Umar Vira ibnu Sultan Salah ud-din Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna Maha Radun, King of the Maldive Islands.
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    1388 - 1389 Sultan Usman al-Fehendu Svasti Sri Sundhura Aditya Maha Radhun, King of the Maldive Islands. Ascended the throne before 1st February 1389. He reigned for six months and fifteen days, before being deposed by Hilali Hassan and exiled to Guraidu, in Kolhumadulu Atoll.
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    continued on the next page.
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    MALDIVES 1 MALDIVES 2 MALDIVES 4 MALDIVES 5
    MALDIVES 6 MALDIVES 7 MALDIVES 8 MALDIVES 9
    MALDIVES 10 MALDIVES 11 MALDIVES 12 MALDIVES 13
    MALDIVES 14 MALDIVES 15 MALDIVES 16 MAIN
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