The Kartasura Dynasty


The state of Surakarta (Kasunanan Surakarta Adi-ning Ratta) is the principal successor state to the central Javanese Empire of Mataram. The Royal house claims descent from the rulers of the earlier Mahajapat Empire. The fortunes of the family were established by Bagus Kachung, who became Panembahan of Mataram in 1558. During the late sixteenth century, and still in the Hindu age, his successors extended their rule over most of Java and the island of Madura. The title of Susuhanan ('he to whom homage is paid') was assumed by the ruler in 1625, a title conferring a sacred status on the holder. Islam was adopted during the middle of the seventeenth century, but it was many years before it took a full hold over the people. The Empire was administered along highly decentralised lines, with local regents and princely families controlling large territories.

However, the empire was comparatively short lived. The increasing power of the Dutch resulted in the cession of large territories. Sumenap and Pamekasan were offered for "protection" to the VOC in 1705. Madura and a part of the north east coast in 1743. The pasisir went in 1746 and finally the mancanagara in 1830.

After the death of the Susuhanan Sri Paku Buwana II in 1749, a long drawn out succession dispute ensued. Prince Mangku Bumi refused to accept the succession of Sri Paku Buwana III, gained certain territories and attempted to seize power. After six years of War had resulted in a stalemate, with Mankubumi in control of the South West. The Susuhanan retained control of the North and East, with Dutch military and political support. The latter tired of the expense and drain on resources, they decided to divide the empire into two new states, Surakarta under the Susuhanan and a new Sultanate of Yogyakarta under Mankubumi. The division was formally inaugurated on 13th February 1755, but it took another seventy-five years to settle the border between the states. In 1757, another rebellion, this time led by Mas Said, resulted in a further division of territory. The Viceroyalty of Mankunagaran came into being in 1757, ostensibly under the overall sovereignty of Surakarta but actually a semi-independent principality, controlling 50% of the Susuhanan's former territory.

Java erupted into civil war immediately after the Japanese surrender to the allies in 1945. A republican independence movement seized power in several cities and towns and implemented a new system of government. Surakarta, unlike Yogyakarta, was "abolished" as an administrative unit in 1946. However, the Susuhanan continued to function as a social, cultural and religious leader, with the full recognition of the state.

Following the death of Susuhanan Prabhu Sri Paku Buwana XII in 2004, the succession was disputed between his eldest son and genealogically more senior claimant, Prince Ngabehi, and his younger half-brother Tejawulan. Both princes were installed by their rival supporters under the same title of Sri Paku Buwana XIII. After almost an eight year struggle, an amicable reconciliation agreement was finally concluded in May 2012 and ratified at the National Parliament, in which Prince Ngabehi was recognised as the rightful Susuhanan.

The ruling prince: Sampeyan Dalam ingkang Sinuhun Kanjeng Susuhanan Prabhu Sri Paku Buwana XII Senapati ing Alaga Ngah 'Abdu'l-Rahman Saiyid ud-din Panatagama, Susuhanan of Surakarta, with the style of His Princely Highness.
The Royal consort of the Susuhanan (the padmi): Gusti Kanjeng Ratu (personal title), ranked as follows:
1. Ratu Kilen (Queen of the West).
2. Ratu Wetan (Queen of the East).
The junior wives (selir) of the Susuhanan: Kanjeng Bandara Radin Ayu (personal title).
Ranks of junior wives:
1. Bandara Radin Ayu.
2. Radin Ayu.
3. Radin.
4. Mas Ayu.
5. Mas Ajeng.
6. Mbok Ajeng.
The Heir Apparent: Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Anum Amangku Negara Sudibya Rajaputra Narendra ing Mataram.
The other sons of the Susuhanan, by the Royal consort: Radin Mas Gusti (personal name). They usually also receive princedoms on reaching their majority, being styled thereafter Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran (personal title). The major titles according to order of precedence, after the Heir Apparent were as follows:
1. Mangku Bumi.
2. Bumi Nata.
3. Purbaya or Purubaya.
4. Puger.
The sons of the Susuhanan, by junior wives: Bandara Radin Mas (personal name). They usually also receive princedoms on reaching their majority, being styled thereafter Bandara Kanjeng Pangeran (personal title).
The grandsons of the ruling prince, in the male line: Bandara Radin Mas (personal name).
The great grandsons and other male descendants of a Susuhanan, in the male line: Radin Mas (personal name).
The daughters of the Susuhanan by the Royal consort, before marriage: Gusti Radin Ajeng (personal name), before marriage. The senior daughters usually also receive high titles on reaching their majority, being styled thereafter Gusti Kanjeng Ratu (personal title), according to the following order of precedence:
1. Sekar-Kedhaton.
2. Pembayun.
3. Maduratna.
4. Bandara.
5. Angger.
6. Timur.
The remaining Royal daughters being styled Gusti Radin Ayu (husband's personal title or name).
The daughters of the Susuhanan by junior wives, before marriage: Bandara Radin Ajeng (personal name).
The daughters of the Susuhanan by junior wives, after marriage: Bandara Radin Ayu (personal title or family name of husband). The senior such daughter being entitled to the title of Ratu Alit, the only Ratu title allowed to daughters of junior wives.
The grand daughters and other female descendants of a Susuhanan, in the male line, before marriage: Radin Ajeng (personal name).
The grand daughters and other female descendants of a Susuhanan, in the male line, after marriage: Radin Ayu (personal title or family name of husband).

The original requirements were that the successor of a Sultan was 1) descended from the House of Mataram, 2) approval by the regulator of the succession, 3) approval of the father, 4) without physical defects and 5) enjoy the favour of the people. To this the Dutch added legitimate descent as a further requirement.

Please see link below.

See under Indonesia main page.

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Dr H.J. de Graaf, De Regering van Sultan Agung, Vorst van Mataram 1613-1645, en die van zijn Voorganger Panembahan S�da-ing-Krapjak 1601-1613, Verhandelingen van het Koninglijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Volume XXIII. The Hague, 1958.
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Bram Setiadai, Qomarul Hadi, and D.S. Tri Handayani, Raja di Alam Republik: Keraton Kasunanan Surakarta dan Paku Buwono XII. Pt. Bina Rena Pariwara, Jakarta, 2000.
Darsiti Soeratman, Kehidupan Dunia Keraton Surakarta 1830-1939. Seri Pustaka Keraton Nusantara 4. Yayasan Untuk Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Juni 2000.
Heather Sutherland. Notes on Java's Regent Families, Indonesia, Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1974.
Aart van Beek, Life in the Javanese Kraton. Oxford University Press, Singapore, 1990.
J.W. Winter, "Beknopte Beschrijving van het Hof Soerakarta in 1824", Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, Zesde Volgreeks - Tiende Deel. Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, The Hague, 1902. pp. 15-172.

Benedictus Artiano.
Raden Adjeng Ina Surya Putranti Suryaningalaga.
D. Tick, Pusat Dokumentasi Kerajaan-Kerajaan di Indonesia "Pusaka".
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