TEHRI GARHWAL

The Ponwar Dynasty

GENEALOGY

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1358 - 1389 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Purba Deo [Ajay Pal] Adi Nath, Maharaja of Garhwal. He conquered 64 garhs and subdued 52 petty states, consolidated and expanding the principality way beyond that enjoyed by his ancestors. Transferred his capital from Chandpur Garh to Devalgarh in 1358, where he built an enormous palace constructed almost exclusively from stone. He was a follower of the goddess Raj Rajeshwari a founder of one of the ten Gorakh Panthi sects, and is hailed as one of eighty-four Siddhas. He d. at Devalgarh, 1389, having had issue:
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1389 - 1398 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Kalyan Shah, Raja of Garhwal, son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Purba Deo [Ajay Pal] Adi N, Raja of Garhwal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1389. Invested with the title of Shah by Sultan Nasir ud-din Muhammad Shah III Tughlaq of Delhi. He d. at Devalgarh, 1398.
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1398 -  Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Sundar Pal, Maharaja of Garhwal.
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ů  Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Hansdeo Pal, Maharaja of Garhwal.
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ů  - 1548 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Bijai Pal [Vijaya Pal II], Maharaja of Garhwal. He d. at Devalgarh, 1548.
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1548 - 1575 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Sahaj Pal, Maharaja of Garhwal. 42nd ruler He was eulogised by the bards who look upon his reign as a golden age, and his principality rich and prosperous. He d. at Devalgarh, 1575.
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1575 - 1591 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Balbhadra Shah, Maharaja of Garhwal. The first of his line to permanently adopt the title of Shah. Fought against Kumaon at the Battle of Gwaldun in 1581. He d. at Devalgarh, 1591.
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1591 - 1611  Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Man Shah I, Maharaja of Garhwal, educ. privately. He faced seven invasions by Raja Lakshmi Chand of Kumaon, but succeeded in taking the battle into the invader's territory and occupying his capital. William Finch mentions the Raja in his "Early Travels in India ", in which he describes Garhwal as large and prosperous. He d. at Devalgarh, 1611, having had issue, including two sons:
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1611 - 1622 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Shyam Shah [Sama Shah], Maharaja of Garhwal, elder son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Man Shah I, Raja of Garhwal, educ. privately. This ruler is mentioned in the "Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri" as receiving a horse and an elephant from Emperor Jahangir in April 1621. He d. at Devalgarh, 1622, having had issue, a son:
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1622 - 1631 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Mahipat Shah "Garbh Bhanjan", Maharaja of Garhwal, younger son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Man Shah I, Maharaja of Garhwal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his nephew, 1622. Transferred his capital from Devalgarh to Srinagar. Eulogised as a great soldier who frequently fought against Kumaon, suppressed banditry in Sirmur, and invaded Tibet with an army of 12,000 in 1624. m. Maharani Mata Karnavati Sahiba, regent for her son 1631-1642, surnamed "Nakattirani" or the 'rani who chops off noses' for her treatment of her vanquished foes, including the army sent against her by Shah Jahan. He was k. in battle against the ruler of Kumaon, July 1631, having had issue:
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1631 - 1665  Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Prithvi Pat Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal. b. at Srinagar, 1624, son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Mahipat Shah "Garva Bhanjan", Maharaja of Garhwal, by his wife, Maharani Karnavati, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, July 1631. Reigned under the regency of his mother, until he came of age and assumed full ruling powers, ca. 1642. He invited the Jesuit fathers in 1648, allotting them some land to build a church and to cultivate orchards. He granted refuge to Prince Sulaiman Shikoh in 1659 and refused to give him up, until his son did so while Prithvi Pat was fighting against the Kumaonis. He d. at Srinagar, before 14th July 1665, having had issue, nine sons and several daughters, including:
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1665 - 1716 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Fateh Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal. b. at Srinagar, 1632, son of Shri Shri Shri Shri Shri Tikka Medni Shah Sahib Bahadur, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his grandfather, before 14th July 1665. Invested with a rob of honour, a jewelled dagger, and an Imperial firman recognising his succession from Emperor Aurangzeb. A great warrior, he led a memorable attack on the Mughal garrison at Dehradun, conquered Paunta and Jaunsar from Sirmur in 1692, and invaded Tibet. He also fought the famous Battle of Bhangani against the Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh, his one time friend, on 18th September 1688. Fought against the Kumaonis several times during his reign, Srinagar being occupied by them for a brief period ca. 1709. A great patron of art and literature, at whose brilliant court a number of important writers and painters enjoyed his patronage. He d. at Srinagar, 1716, having had issue, four sons and a daughter:
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1716 - 1717 Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Upendra Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal. b. at Srinagar, 1695, eldest son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Fateh Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal, educ. privately. He d. at Sri Nagar, 1717, having had issue, a son:
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1717 - 1772  Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Pradip Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal. b. at Srinagar, 1709, son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Upendra Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1717. Reigned under a Council of Regency composed of his mother and Puran Pal or Puriya Naithani. His reign finally saw peace restored between Garhwal and Kumaon, but he faced invasion and harassment from the Rohillas under Najib Khan and Payinda Khan. He d. at Srinagar, December 1772 (or 29th Mangsir, Samvat 1829), having had issue:
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1772 - 1780  Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Lalit Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal. b. at Srinagar, 1750, son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Pradip Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, December 1772. Invaded Kumaon after the murder of Deep Chand and conquered that kingdom in 1777, which he formed into a kingdom for his younger son in 1779. m. (first) ům. (second) ůHe d. from malaraia, while returning from Kumaon, at Dulri, August 1780,  having had issue, four sons and at least one daughter:
Maharaja Lalit Shah also had further issue by a junior wife or concubine.
 
1780 - 1785  Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Jaikarat [Jayakirti] Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal. b. at Srinagar, 1763, eldest son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Lalit Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal, by his first wife, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, December 1772. Opposed by his minister Kripa Ram Dobhal and the Khanduri, who contested power between themselves 1780-1781. Although assisted to regain control by Jagat Prakash of Sirmur, he then retired to consult Raj Rajeshwari Devi at Devalgarh, but his brother invaded from Kumaon and took control of the capital. He d.s.p. by suicide at the Raghunathji Temple, Deoprayag, 1785.
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1785 - 1804 H.H. Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Pradyuman Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal. b. at Srinagar, 1775, second son of Swasti Shri 1008 Badrish Charya Prayana Garh-Rajya Mahi Mahendra Dharam, Vaibhav Dharam Rakshah Shiromani Shri 108 Maharaja Lalit Shah Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Garhwal, by his second wife, educ. privately. Proclaimed as ruler and placed on the gadi of Kumaon by his father in 1779. He later assumed the name of Pradyumma Chand and claimed to be the adopted son of Maharaja Deep Chand. He quarrelled with his half-brother, invaded Garhwal looting Devalgarh and attacked Srinagar. He remained in control there 1781-1783, before returning to Kumaon. Succeeded as ruler of Garhwal on the death of his elder brother, 1785. Installed on the gadi at Srinagar, 1786. Parakram Shah, his unruly younger brother contested control over the principality from the outset, but more importantly, the Gurkhas invaded via Kumaon with massive force in 1791. Although they retired when faced with a Chinese invasion in 1791, he had to accept Nepalese protection and agreed a tribute of Rs 25,000 p.a. They returned with a smaller force in February 1803 and were held-off for a period, but decisively defeated Pradyuman at Chamuwa. He retired to Landhaura, in Saharanpur, January 1804. He was k. in battle with the Gurkhas, at Khurbura, near Dehra Dun, 14th May 1804, having had issue, two sons:
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TEHRI GARHWAL 1 TEHRI GARHWAL 2 TEHRI GARHWAL 4
TEHRI GARHWAL 5 TEHRI GARHWAL 6 MAIN
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