KAPURTHALA

The Ahluwalia Dynasty

GENEALOGY

Bhai Ganda Singh, son of Bhai Wadhava Singh. Entered the Mughal forces and served at Multan under Dilawar Khan. Granted the villages of Ahlu-Hollo, Sado, Toor, and Chak in recognition of his bravery. He had issue, several sons, including: Copyright© Christopher Buyers
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1777 - 1783 Sultan ul-Qaum, Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, Dharamvir. b. at Ahlu, near Lahore, 3rd May 1718, only son of Sardar Badar Singh Ahluwalia, by his wife, the eldest sister of Sardar Bagh [Bhagu] Singh Hallovalla, educ. privately at Delhi. Presented with a sword, a bow with one quiver, a club, a shield, and a silver mace by Mata Sundari, widow of the Guru Gobind in 1718, and later received the mace of the Guru himself in 1753. Succeeded to his father’s properties after his death in 1722. Adopted by Nawab Kapoor Singh. Succeeded to his maternal uncle’s lands 1731. Cdr of the Dal Khalsa, the armies of the Sikh confederacy 1748. Invested with the personal title of Nawab, at the Guru Mata, Amritsar, 10th April 1754. In the following year, Jassa defeated Adena Beg at the Battle of Kadar, and seized control of Fatehbad and its dependent territories, making Fatehbad his seat in 1755. He served at the capture of Lahore and the liberation of the Sikh captives 1761. Proclaimed as Head of the Sikh Confederacy with the title of Sultan ul-Qaum following the capture of Lahore, November 1761. Defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali at the Battle of Barnala, 10th February 1762. He subsequently captured Payal in 1766, defeated Mirza Sukhan in the environs of Delhi and Anusphar 1768, captured Jalandhar 1769, and in Raikot 1771. In 1773, together with Kanwar Mohan Singh and Kanwar Bhag Singh he reduced Rai Ibrahim Bhatti of Kapurthala as a tributary to 27 villages, taking control of the rest of his country. Attacked and seized control of Kapurthala Fort in December 1779, after the Bhatti went into rebellion and refused to remit the agreed tribute. He defeated the Mughal armies and entered Delhi, and entered the Red Fort 11th March 1783. His followers attempted to raise him to the Imperial throne in the Dewan-i-Amb by seating him on the Imperial musnaid and waving peacock feathers about his head. However, the resentment that this caused amongst other important sardars prompted him to immediately leave the durbar, resign all his commands and retire to Amritsar. A great general and elder statesman revered in Sikh history. m. (first) Mai Sahibji [Mai Anokhi]. m. (second) Sadarani Raj Kaur Sahiba [Mai Sahiban]. He d.s.p.m. from colic contracted when he ate a water-melon, at Bandala, 22nd October 1783 (crem. at the Dera Baba Attal, Amritsar), having had issue, one son and two daughters:
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1783 - 1801 Nawab Bhag Singh Ahluwalia. b. before 20th October 1746, son of Bhai Ladha Singh Ahluwalia, educ. privately. Appointed as his successor by Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia duing his lifetime. Administrator for his cousin, over the seized territories around Kapurthala 1773-1779. Established his seat at Kapurthala Fort in 1780, following its capture in December 1779. Succeeded on the death of his cousin, as ruler of Kapurthala and commander of the Ahluwalia misl, 22nd October 1783. Installed as ruler at Kapurthala Fort, November 1783. Opposed by his predecessors sons-in-law, who contested his right to the succession. Governor of Salan 1784. He defeated the Nakkais and seized control of Sharkpur and Kasur in 1784, and took Jandiala and Tarn Taran from the Bhangis in 1793, but was severely defeated by an alliance between Hamir Singh Ramgarhia and Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra in 1801. And extremely kind-hearted man who would not tolerate cruelty to man or animal, and the expenditure of large sums on charity for the poor. A failing which resulted in the loss of some of his lands and induced insolence and boldness from several of his tributaries, who took their advantage and withheld their revenue. He d. from an infection in his foot, at Kapurthala Fort, 10th July 1801, having had issue, one son and two daughters:
  • 1) Sri Tikka Fateh Singh Sahib, who succeeded as Raja Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, Raja of Kapurthala - see below.
  • 1) Bibiji ... Sahiba. m. at Fatehabad, 1779, Kanwar Sukha Singh (k. in a skirmish with his younger brother, Sardar Sahib Singh Bhangi), eldest son of Sardar Gujar Singh Bhangi.
  • 2) Bibiji ... Sahiba. m. 1812, General Sardar Rattan Singh, of Behra. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
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1801 - 1837 Raja Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, Raja of Kapurthala. b. at Kapurthala Fort, 1784 (his father receiving the news of his birth during his victory at Kasur), only son of Sardar Bhag Singh Ahluwalia, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father as ruler of Kapurthala and commander of the Ahluwalia misl, 1801. Assumed the hereditary title of Raja in 1801. Entered into a military alliance with Maharaja Ranjit Singh at Fatehabad in 1802, and a Treaty of Friendship and Amity with the HEIC 1st January 1806. He removed his capital from Fatehabad to Kapurthala shortly thereafter. Participated in the campaigns that won Jamke and Kathua 180), Sujanpur 1803, Kasur 1804 and 1807, Amritsar 1805, Jhang 1807, Sialkot 1807, and across the Satluj 1806-1808. He was also present in the expeditions against Find Dadan Khan 1809-1810, Jalandhar 1810-1811, Mandi 1811, Kulu 1811, Hazara 1813, Kashmir 1814, and the Yusufzai territories in 1824. Fled to British territory 27th December 1825, fearing the increasing power and threat of encroachment of his territories by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Returned to Kapurthala in 1827, after being reassured by the Maharaja of his continuing goodwill. Granted the districts of Dakha, Kot, Jagraoh, Talvandi, Naraingarh and Raipur, in reward for his many military victories. m. (first) at Kapurthala Fort, 1796, Rani Sada Kaur Sahiba (d. after 1837), daughter of Sardar Tehal Singh. m. (second) at Kapurthala Fort, 1802, Rani Rattan Kaur Sahiba (d. after 1837). He d. from malaria, at Kapurthala Fort, 20th October 1837, having had issue, two sons and one daughter:
  • 1) Sri Tikka Nihal Singh Sahib, who succeeded as H.H. Raja Nihal Singh Sahib Bahadur, Raja of Kapurthala - see below.
  • 2) Sardar Amar Singh. b. at Kapurthala Fort, before 14th March 1820 Sumvat 1876 (s/o Sada Kaur), educ. privately. Rebelled against his elder brother, 1839. Reconciled and granted an allowance of Rs. 30,000 p.a. He was k. in a boating accident in the Ravi River, 28th March 1841.
  • 1) Rajkumari Bibiji Raghubir Kaur Sahiba [Rani Raghubir Kaur Sahiba, of Ballabgarh]. m. at Kapurthala Fort, 1837, Sri Raja Nahar Singh, Raja of Ballabgarh (b. at Ballbhgarh, 6th April 1821; k. (executed) for his part in the Indian Mutiny, at Chandni Chowk, Delhi, 21st April 1858), son of Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Ballabgarh, in the Delhi district, by his wife, Rani Basant Kaur. She d.s.p. having adopted an only son - see India Zamindars (Kuchesar).
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1837 - 1852 H.H. Raja Nihal Singh Sahib Bahadur, Raja of Kapurthala. b. at Kapurthala Fort, 10th March 1817, elder son of Raja Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, Raja of Kapurthala, educ. privately. Became Heir Apparent with the title of Sri Tikka Sahibat birth. Succeeded on the death of his father, 20th October 1837. Granted Nur Mahal and Kalal Majra, in reward for his military services during the First Afghan War in 1841. However, he joined forces with the Lahore Durbar in the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845-1846, participated in the battles of Baddoval and Aliwal, but lost all his territories south of the Sutlej to the HEIC as a consequence. Remained neutral during the 2nd and 3rd Anglo-Sikh. Granted the hereditary title of Raja for his services during the 2nd Anglo-Sikh War 1849. m. (first) H.H. Rani Pratap Kaur Sahiba (d. at Kapurthala Fort, 1864), sister of Sardar Shamsher Singh, Rais of Fatehabad. m. (second) at Kapurthala Fort, 5th March 1835, H.H. Rani Mai Hiran Kaur Sahiba (d. at Bikram Palace, Bikrampura, Jullunder, Punjab). He d. at the Nihal Palace, Kapurthala, 13th September 1852, having had issue, three sons and three daughters:
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