MALACCA-JOHOR

GENEALOGY

Raja Iskandar Zulkarnain ('Alexander of the two horns'),
the legendary ancestor of all the major Malay dynasties.
m.
Tuan Putri Shah ul-Bariah
d/o Raja Kida Hindi
I
Raja Aristun Shah
I
Raja Aftas
I
Raja Sabur
I
Raja Amtabus
I
Raja Kudar Zakuhun
I
Raja Ardeshir Babegan
m.
a d/o Raja Nushirwan Adil
I
Raja Dermanus
I
Shah Tersi
I
Raja Zamrut
I
Raja Tersi Berderas
m.
d/o Raja Sulan of Amdan (s/o Raja Kibad Shahriar and g/s/o Raja Nushirwan Adil)
I
Raja Suran of Amdan
(with whom we treat)

Raja Suran, Raja of Amdan, son of Raja Tersi Berderas, by his wife, a daughter of Raja Sulan, Raja of Amdan. Succeeded his maternal grandfather as ruler of Amdan. m. (first) Tuan Putri Zaris, niece of Shah Johan. Raja of Gongga, in the Dindings, Perak. m. (second) Tuan Putri Onang-kiu, daughter of Raja Chulan. m. (third) Tuan Putri Mahtab ul-Bahri, daughter of Raja Aftab ul-Ardl. He had issue, three sons by his his first, one daughter by his second, and three sons by his third wife:
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1324 - 1372* Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara, Batara Sri Tribuwana**, younger son of Sri Maharaja Sang Sapurba [Nila Pahlawan Sang Sri Prabhu Dharma Sena Tribuwana], Paduka Sri Trimurti Tribuwana, by his wife, Tuan Sandari. Succeeded his father. Removed himself from Bintan to Temasek (water town) ca 1324, where he defeated and killed the local ruler, a vassal of Ayuthya (Siam) and established the new city of Singapura (lion city). He maintained control over Temasek for 48 years. Confirmed as ruler over Temasek by an envoy of the Chinese Emperor ca 1366. m. Radin Ratna Chandra Puri, daughter of Ratu Sakadar Shah [Wan Sri Bini/Benian], Raja Perempuan of Bintan, daughter of Raja Ishar Shah, and granddaughter of Ratu Permaisuri Iskandar Shah***, widow of the first recorded Muslim ruler of Bintan. He d. at Singapore, ca 1372, having had issue, two sons:
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* The dates given here are based on the Chinese recording of the accession of Sultan Iskandar Shah in 1413, worked backwards using the lengths of reign assigned to his predecessors in the 'Sejarah Melayu' and 'Bustan us'Salatin'.
** Tribuwana, a title meaning 'lord of three worlds' and here signifying rulership over Palembang, Bintan and Temasak.
His full designation in the 'Sejarah Melayu' is a partly garbled Malay approximation of his Sanskrit titles and reads "svasti paduka seri maharaja srmat seri spst suran bum buji bal pekerma sklng krt makt rana muka tri buana prsng sakrit bna tngk derma rana shran kt ran besinggasana ran wikerma udt rtt plauik sdir diw did perabu di kala muli malk seri derma raja-raja permaisuri". Some of the words and phrases can be deciphered but others not: Svasti Paduka Sri Maharaja Srimant Sri Suprasidha Suvarnabhumi Pujipala Vikrama Sakarangkarta Mangkuta Ratnamuka Tribuwana Prasangasakrita Buwana tngk Dharmarana shran kt Ratna Bisinggasana Ratna Vikrama Uditya Rattana plauik sdir Devaditya Prabhu di Kara Muliya Mali Mala Sri Dharmarajadiraja Parameswara and translates as "His Highness, the great ruler of the whole of Suvarna-bhumi, whose crown is adorned with the happiness of strength and victory … adornment of the three worlds … maintainer of law … sunrise of valour … jewel … the coronal wreath-necklace of the righteous king of kings, supreme or absolute master of the earthly world.
The Palembang records show a certain Shrimant Tribhuwana Raja Dharmasena Mauliya Varmam Deva Parameswara (fl 1347) as a predecessor of a Sang Mariaka (fl 1375-1376), possibly a references to either Sang Utama.
*** Speculation about the gender of the individual described in the 'Sejarah Melayu' as Permaisuri Iskandar (or Sahandar) Shah and discussions about the correctness or incorrectness of her name is misplaced. Permaisuri Iskandar Shah is simply an indication that she was the commoner wife or widow of a ruler named Iskandar Shah. Little different from an English writer composing a paragraph about South Africa in the 1920s including a phrase like "the wife of the Governor-General, Princess Arthur of Connaught".
**** Later recensions of the Sejarah Melayu make Raja Kechil Muda the Bendahara, with the title of Tun Perpatih Permuka Berjayar. Editions from the early sixteenth century do not support this view. Consequently, we treat the two individuals as distinct. See Malacca-Bendahara.
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1372 - 1386 Paduka Sri Bikrama Vira di-Raja [Pekerma Wira], Raja of Temasek, elder son of Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara, Batara Sri Tribuwana. Styled Raja Kechil Besar before his accession. Attacked several times by Radin Inu Merta Wangsa of Majapahit, and the city burned and its inhabitants put to the sword by a Palembang invasion in 1377. m. at Singapore, Tuan Putri Nila Panjadi [Tilai Puchudi], of the line of Raja Suran and daughter of Raja Jambuga Rama Mudaliar, Raja of Keling (or Kalinga, in South India). He d. at Temasek, ca 1386, having had issue, including an eldest son:
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1386 - 1399 Paduka Sri Ratna Vira Vikrama di-Raja [Paduka Seri Rana Wira Kerma], Raja of Temasek, eldest son of Paduka Sri Bikrama Vira di-Raja, Raja of Temasek, by his wife, Tuan Putri Nila Panjadi. Styled Raja Muda before his accession. m. a daughter of Tun Perpatih Permuka Berjayar. He d. at Singapore, ca 1399, having had issue, two sons and a daughter, including:
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* In records relating to the Temenggong family of Muar, the title Sri Amara di-Raja is sometimes rendered as Seri Sa' Amar Diraja. Therefore, it is highly probable that the Chinese references to Hsi-li-sa-ma-lan-cha-ya and Sai-ti-la-che are actually to a single individual, the Bendahara Sri Amar di-Raja, rather than a Sri Samarang Jaya or Jaya di-Raja.
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1399 - 1413 Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara*, Raja of Malacca, son of Paduka Sri Ratna Vira Vikrama di-Raja, Raja of Temasek, educ. privately. Succeeded as ruler of Singapura Temasek on the death of his father, ca 1399. Expelled from Temasek by the Batara of Majapahit working in collusion with the Bendahara, Sang Ranjuna Tapa, 1401. Removed to Muar, on the mainland, then to Bertam (when aged no more than eighteen years??). Received several Chinese envoys and trading missions, and recorded as paying homage to the Chinese Emperor 3rd October 1405. He visited China together with his wife and son and a retinue of 540 persons, being received at Nanking on 14th August 1411 and remaining three months before returning to Malacca. m. (first) Raja Permaisuri, a niece of Batara Tumapel [Tamurel], of Majapahit in Java. m. (second) Devi Putri, daughter of Tun Perpatih Tulus Tulus I, sometime Bendahara. He d. at Bertam, late 1413, having had issue, including:
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*The 'Sejarah Melayu' does not mention a ruler called Parameswara between Pekerma Wira and Iskandar Shah. The only ruler mentioned is Seri Maharaja. However, both Chinese and Portuguese accounts clearly indicate Iskandar's father and immediate predecessor as Parameswara. Furthermore, given that the rulers of the period in other South-East Asian realms assumed very long regnal titles, Sri Maharaja appears to be a small part of a longer title. The Chinese and Portuguese records also indicate that several other later rulers enjoyed longer classical Sanskrit regnal titles. These too do not find mention in the 'Sejarah Malayu'. The reason for the omission may lie in the fact that the work is post-Islamic. The later writers may not have been keen to show the survival of 'pagan' styles.
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Speculation that Parameswara was a mistaken transliteration for the masculine form of the well-known Malay designation of permaisuri, indicating a lower rank than the spouse, does not hold much credence. Parameswara translates from the Sanskrit as 'supreme or absolute master of the earthly world' and frequently appears amongst the titles of both Buddhist and Hindu rulers in the region (see Burma, Cambodia or Thailand). The word also appears in the extended or long title associated with his ancestor Tribuwana, as well as a later descendant, Sultan 'Abu Shahid Ibrahim.
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continued on the next page.
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MALACCA 1 MALACCA 3 MALACCA 4
BENDAHARA JOHOR II MAIN
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CopyrightęChristopher Buyers, November 2000 - October 2008