MALACCA-JOHOR

GENEALOGY

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1413 - 1423 Paduka Sri Sultan Iskandar Shah*, Sultan of Malacca. b. at Singapore, ca 1344, younger son of Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara, Raja of Malacca, educ. privately. Styled Raja Muda before his accession. Fled from Singapore with his father and family in 1398, moving to Seletar, thence to Muar, Biawak Busok and Kota Burok, then to Bertam. Established a settlement and constructed his palace at Malacca (on St Paul's Hill) ca 1403, encouraging the Bugis to settle there with immigrants from Aru. Succeeded as ruler on the death of his father in late 1413, and installed as Paduka Sri Ratna Adivikrama di-Raja [Seri Rama Adikerma Raja]. He subsequently removed the capital there after his accession. He visited China where the Emperor received him in audience at Peking on 5th October 1414, when he (Mu-kan-sa-yu-ti-er-sha) reported the death of his father (Pai-li-mi-su-la) and received recognition as his successor. Visited China again with his wife and son, when the Chinese Emperor received him (Issu-han-ta-er-sha) at Peking on 23rd September 1419, the party remaining in China for three years. His interest in trade and diplomatic adventures led him at once to take the protection of the King of Siam, at another the Batara of Majapahit and later, the Emperor of China. m. (first) the principal daughter of a senior minister of Bugis descent. m. (second) a daughter of a Chinese Admiral. m. (third) at Malacca, 1416, at the age of seventy-two and after conversion to Islam, a daughter of Sultan al-Adil Malik uz-Zahir Abu Zaid, Sultan of Samudra-Pasai. m. (a) a daughter of Sang Ranjuna Tapa, of Singapore. He d. shortly after returning from a three year visit to China, at Malacca, late 1423 (before 20th April 1424), having had issue:
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* Iskandar Shah of the Malay Annals, Mu-kan-sa-yu-ti-er-sha/Issu-han-ta-er-sha of the Chinese Imperial records, and Chaquem Daraxa/Xaquerem Daxa of Archbishop Manuel Texeira. The 'Suma Oriental' (1512-1515), which predates the 'Sejarah Melayu' (1536) confirms that Chaquem Daraxa was the son of Paramicura. He journeyed to China at the age of 45 in a trip taking three years, became a Muslim at age 72 and died aged 80. D'Albuquerque's Commentaries (1511) say that Xaquendarxa died a few days after returning from a three-year journey to China. The latter probably a reference to his second trip in 1419-1423. These facts correspond very closely to the contemporary Chinese sources of the early fourteenth century. Winstedt (1948) mistakenly amalgamates the Parameswara, his son Iskandar Shah and Sultan Megat into a single individual. Subsequent authors go further and call him Muhammad Iskander Shah. Given that both Chinese and Portuguese sources pre-date the earliest known edition of the 'Sejarah Melayu' there is little reason to discount them in favour of the latter, for reasons other than narrow nationalism. The two sources are entirely independent and could not have influenced each other in any way.
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The notion that Mu-kan-sa-yu-ti-er-sha is a contemporary Chinese transliteration of Megat Iskandar Shah or Muhammad Iskandar Shah, seems somewhat far-fetched. Phonetically speaking, one does not morph into the other with any ease. However, Issu-han-ta-er-sha, used by the Chinese for the Malacca ruler in 1419 compares much more favourably with Iskandar Shah. This fits quite well with his probable date of conversion to Islam, verifiable from Portuguese and other sources. Mu-kan-sa-yu-ti-er-sha, on the other hand, dates from 1414 and makes it more likely that it amounts to a Chinese phonetic transliteration of his pre-Islamic title.
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** The use of "Sultan Megat" suggests a nickname or, that this individual was actually the son of a daughter of the ruler, rather than his son. The title of Raja Kechil Besar also suggests a position junior to an Heir Apparent, who would be styled Raja Muda. Portuguese and Chinese sources do not mention him as a ruler. This may suggest that he was only a stand-in, rather than a full ruler. The Chinese records confirm that Iskandar Shah took his heir to China with him, and that the journey there and back took about three years. Consequently, it is likely that an elder son, probably by a junior ranking wife, acted for him during his journeys abroad.

The use of Radin is equally inexplicable, given that the title Javanese when a) no Javanese connection is mentioned for either parent and b) the higher title of Raja was already in use for those of male-line Royal descent.

*** Several recensions of the Sejarah Melayu assume that Raja Tengah and Radin are the same individual, but this is not at all clear from the earlier editions. Tengah simply indicates an individual's birth order as a "middle" child.

**** Mentioned with these titles and in some detail only in the Portuguese sources (Pires pp 243-246), both of which predate the earliest known editions of the 'Sejarah Melayu'. The latter make out that Raja Tengah's elder brother was the Bendahara, later recensions calling him Tun Perpatih Permuka Berjajar. However, this seems to be yet another attempt or mistaken attempt to assign a male-line Royal descent by the Bendahara clan. It is more likely that given the Portuguese accounts of his daughters' marriages, the descent of the Bendaharas is entirely genuine, but that descent is in the female line.
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1423 - 1444 Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja Besar Muda Ahmad, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca. b. ca 1388), second son of Raja Ahmad ibni al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar Shah, Raja Besar Muda, by his wife, Tuan Putri Kamar ul-'Aja'ib, educ. privately. Styled Raja Kechil Besar before his accession. Succeeded on the death of his father as Sri Maharaja, 1423. He journeyed to China with his wife, when the Chinese Emperor received Hsi-li-ma-ha-la-che at Peking on 20th April 1424 and he reported the death of his father. Returned to China for a second time with his brother Radin Bala, arriving at Nanking on 28th November 1433, received at court in Peking on 26th May 1434, and departed Canton after 28th April 1435. Assumed the Muslim title of Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah sometime after 1435%. m. (first) a daughter of Tun Perpatih Muka Berjaya, Sri Deva Raja. m. (second) a sister of the Raja of Rokan. m. (third) a daughter of the Bendahara Sri Maharaja Indra Purba. He d. at Malacca, 1444, having issue, four sons and a daughter:
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% The initial use of a classical Sanskrit title in the Chinese sources, followed by a later change to an Islamic title seem to confirm his conversion to Islam as recorded in the 'Sejarah Malayu'. This raises questions about his predecessor Iskandar Shah, where similar changes in title occur. Those correspond with records of his conversion following marriage to the Sultan of Pasai's daughter. Perhaps Iskandar and some of his relatives embraced Islam, but that conversion was not complete. Other members of his family, the court and general populace may have adhered to the old religion until a more complete and orthodox conversion during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah.
 
1444 - 1445 Paduka Sri Sultan Ibrahim Dewa Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Shah, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam ['Abu Shahid], Sultan of Malacca. b. 1443, third son of Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad Megat, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca, by his third wife, the Rokan princess, educ. privately. Styled Sri Parameswara Dewa Shah# before his accession. Appointed as Heir Apparent at the instigation of the Queen Mother, who was opposed to her own grandson, Raja Kasim. Proclaimed aged seventeen months on the death of his father, but never installed. Reigned under the regency of his uncle the Raja of Rokan. He was k. in an affray with Tamils, during the revolt of his elder half-brother, after a reign of one year and eight months, 1445.
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# Hsi-li pa-mi-his-wa-er tiu-pa sha in the Chinese records.
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1445 - 1459 Paduka Sri Sultan Muzaffar Shah@ ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Shah, Malik-ul-Adil, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca, youngest son of Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja Ahmad, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca, by his third wife, a daughter of the Bendahara Sri Maharaja Indra Purba, educ. privately. Superseded as Heir Apparent by his younger brother and forced to earn his own living as a fisherman. He raised an army of followers, deposed the regent and ascended the throne, at Malacca, 1445. A ruler renowned for his justice and clemency, during whose reign the codification of the laws were recorded in the Kitab Undang Undang. Twice attacked by the King of Siam, but successfully repulsed both invasions. m. (first) at Malacca, 1445, Raja Tua, daughter of Radin Anum bin Sultan Megat. m. (second) at Malacca, after 1445 (div.), Tun Kudu (m. second, before 1459, Tun 'Ali, Sri Nara di-Raja), daughter of Tun Perpatih Sedang, Bendahara Sri Wak Raja. He d. 1459, having had issue, one son and two daughters:
 
@ Su-lu-t'an wu-ta-fo-na-sha in the Chinese records.
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1459 - 1477 Paduka Sri Sultan Mansur Shah I ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca. b. 1442, son of Paduka Sri Sultan Muzaffar Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abu Shahid, Malik-ul-Adil, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca, by his wife, Raja Tua, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father and was installed at Malacca, 1459 (aged 17 years). Conquered Pahang, Kampar, and Siak. Received Indiragiri in dowry with his Javanese wife. He became ill in old age and ruled under the regency of his son, Sultan 'Ala ud-din, for a long time. m. (first) before 1459, Tun Putih Nur Pualam, daughter of Bendahara Sri Amar di-Raja. m. (second) Putri Wanang Sri Lela Wangsa, daughter of Maharaja Deva Suriya, of Pahang, by his wife, a daughter or relative of the King of Siam, by whom he had two sons. m. (third) ca 1460, Tuan Putri Hang Li Po, a Chinese lady, supposedly the daughter of the Emperor of China. m. (fourth) Radin Galoh Chandra Kirana, Raja Perempuan Besar, a Javanese lady, daughter of Sang Aji Jaya ning-Rat, Batara of Majapahit, by his wife, Radin Galoh Devi Kesuma [Tuan Putri Wi Kusuma], daughter of the Batara of Majapahit. m. (fifth) a sister of the Bendahara Paduka Raja yang bongsu. m. (sixth) Tun Sadah [Tun Shah], daughter of Tun 'Ali, Sri Nara di-Raja. He d. at Malacca, 1477 (aged 73) (bur. there at the Royal Mausoleum on St Paul's Hill), having had issue, six sons and five daughters:
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1477 - 1488 Paduka Sri Sultan 'Ala ud-din Ri'ayat Shah I ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca. b. 1456, as Raja Husain, youngest son of Paduka Sri Sultan Mansur Shah I ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah, Khalifat ul-Mukminin Zilu'llah fil'Alam, Sultan of Malacca, by his fourth wife, a sister of the Bendahara Paduka Raja, educ. privately. Appointed as Heir Apparent with the title of Raja Muda after the death of his elder half-brother. Succeeded on the death of his father and installed with the title of Paduka Sri Sultan 'Ala ud-din Ri'ayat Shah, 1477. He conquered Lingga and the Riau islands, but was defeated by the ruler of Aru in a sea-battle. He took a keen interest in religion but amassed great wealth and habitually took opium. m. (first) before 1477, Tun Senaja [Naja], daughter of Tun 'Ali, Sri Nara di-Raja, by his wife, Tun Kudu, widow of Paduka Sri Sultan Muzaffar Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abu Shahid, Sultan of Malacca, and daughter of Tun Perpatih Sendang, Bendahara Sri Wak Raja. m. (second) after 1477, his first cousin, a daughter of the ruler of Kampar. m. (third) Raja Perempuan (bur. Merlimau, Malacca), daughter of Sultan Muhammad Shah I ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah, Sultan of Pahang, by his wife, Mengindra Putri, grand daughter of Sultan Iskandar Shah Nenggiri ibni al-Marhum Sultan Baki Shah, Raja of Kelantan. He d. (poisoned by his Pahang brother or from fever) at Pagoh, on the Muar river, 1488 (aged 33), having had issue, four sons and four daughters&:
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& Sultan Mahmud Shah I also had a nephew, Raja Bunco, krissed because he wanted to go to Aru in Sumatra.
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MALACCA 1 MALACCA 2 MALACCA 4
BENDAHARA JOHOR II MAIN
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