JOHOR

The Bendahara Dynasty

BRIEF HISTORY

The modern Royal house of Johor (or Johore) trace their descent from one 'Aidarus of Aceh in Sumatra, a Sayyid from the Hadramaut in Southern Arabia. His male descendants came to rule over four states, Johor, Trengganu and Pahang in Malaysia and Lingga in Indonesia. The family frequently married into the old Royal House of Malacca-Johor, and succeeded to the Sultanate on the extinction of the male line in 1699. During the following two centuries, the once mighty empire continued its slow decline, prey to new powers from Europe and the wider Malay world. Sultan Mahmud Shah III died in 1811, without Royal heirs and without naming an heir from his surviving sons born of non-Royal wives. A dispute over the succession inevitably followed. The British supported his eldest son, Husain. The Dutch supported Husain's younger half-brother, 'Abdur Rahman. In return for their support, the British secured cession of the island of Singapore. The hinterland, bordering the mouth of the Johor river, continued to be administered by the Temenggong, a great territorial magnate and collateral descendant of the Royal House. The area around Pahang being administered by the Bendahara, a scion of the same family. The European antagonists eventually partitioned the kingdom into three separate states, Johor, Riau and Lingga. Johor came under British protection, Riau and Lingga under the Dutch (see Indonesia). Sultan Husain's son, Sultan 'Ali Iskandar Shah, succeeded him in 1835, but abdicate and ceded his rights over the mainland to Daing Ibrahim, who ruled as the Temenggong Sri Maharaja. Abu Bakar, Ibrahim's son succeeded in 1862. He modernised the state, introduced the first constitution in history, improved the administration, education and finance, and travelled widely in Europe and Asia. Five years after the death of Sultan 'Ali Iskandar Shah, he eschewed the lowly rank of Maharaja for the ancient title of Sultan. His death in a London hotel in 1895, ushered in the sixty-four year reign of his son, Sultan Sir Ibrahim. Coming to power during the last years of the Victorian age, through two world wars, including the Japanese occupation, to the eventual independence of a united Malaya, Ibrahim was a remarkable witness of his age. Sultan Sir Ismail, Ibrahim's eldest son and long-time under-study, succeeded in 1959 and reigned for 22 years. His son and successor was a controversial figure in Malaysian political circles, nevertheless he served as King of the federation between 1984 and 1989. He died in early 2010 after a reign of 28 years and was succeeded by his elder son, Sultan Ibrahim Ismail.
 
STYLES & TITLES:
The ruling prince: By the grace of God Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State and Territory of Johor Dar ul-Takzim, with the style of His Royal Highness.
The Royal consort of the ruling prince: Duli Yang Amat Mulia Sultanah Johor Dar ul-Takzim, i.e. the Sultana of Johore, with the style of Her Royal Highness.
The Heir Apparent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Putra Tengku Mahkota Johor Dar ul-Takzim, i.e. the Crown Prince of Johore, with the style of His Highness.
The Royal consort of the Heir Apparent: Tengku Ampuan Besar, with the style of Her Highness.
The Heir Presumptive: Yang Amat Mulia Raja Muda Johor Dar ul-Takzim, with the style of His Highness.
The younger sons of the ruling prince: Yang Amat Mulia Paduka Putra Tunku (personal name) bin (father's title and name), i.e. Prince, with the style of His Highness.
The daughters of the ruling prince: Yang Amat Mulia Paduka Putri Tunku (personal name) bin (father's title and name), i.e. Princess, with the style of Her Highness.
The Regent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Pemangku Raja Johor Dar ul-Takzim, i.e. the Prince Regent of Johore, with the style of His Highness.
Other male members of the Royal family, descended in the male line: Yang Mulia Tunku (personal name) bin (father's title and name).
Other female members of the Royal family, descended in the male line: Yang Mulia Tunku (personal name) binti (father's title and name).
Other, more remote collaterals, descended in the male line: Ungku.

RULES OF SUCCESSION:
Male primogeniture in the family of Sultan Sir Abu Bakar.

ORDERS & DECORATIONS:
See separate link below.

GLOSSARY:
See under Malaysia, main page.

SOURCES:
Raja 'Ali Haji ibn Ahmad. The Precious Gift (Tuhfat al-Nafis): An annotated translation by Virginia Matheson and Barbara Watson Andaya. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1982.
S. Samad Ahmad. Kerajaan Johor-Riau. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1985.
Leonard Y Andaya. The Kingdom of Johor 1641-1728. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1975.
Datuk Paul Andresen, Mads Lange fra Bali, og hans efterslægt Sultanerne af Johor. Odense Universitetsforlag, 1992.
Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, Burke's Peerage Ltd. in conjunction with Shaw Publishing Co. Ltd., London, 1959.
Haji Buyong bin Adil. Sejarah Johor, Dewa Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 1971.
M.A. Fawzi Basri. Warisah Sejarah Johor, Persatuan Sejarah Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1983.
Ensiklopedia Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Melayu, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1995.
The Leaders of Malaya and Who's Who 1957-1958, J. Victor Morais, Kuala Lumpur, 1958.
W. Linehan, M.A., M.C.S., "A History of Pahang", Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume XIV, Part 2, 1936.
Persatuan Zuriat Ungku Abdullah (PEZUA), Malaysia. September 2007.
Megan Robertson. Internet, 2007. http://www.medals.org.uk/
Captain H.M. Said. Genealogical Tree of the Johore Royal Families, Government Printing Office, Johore Bahru, 1923.
Shaharil Talib. After its own Image, The Trengganu Experience 1881-1941. Oxford University Press, Singapore, 1984.
The Leaders of Malaya and Who's Who 1957-1958, J. Victor Morais, Kuala Lumpur, 1958.
Who's Who in Malaysia and guide to Singapore, J. Victor Morais, Kuala Lumpur, 1967-1978.
Datin Melba Walker Ibrahim. The Prince and Datin Melba. Dorrance Publishing Co., Inc., Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 2001.
R.O. Winstedt. "A History of Johore (1365-1895)", Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume X, Part 3, 1932.

SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Y.M. Tengku 'Abdu'l-Rahman bin Tengku Muhammad Yusuf, of Riau-Lingga.
Y.M. Tengku Ahmad Hanafiah.
Ricky Chua.
Amina Josetta binti Ahmad Kayani.

Kartina Paris.
Y.M. Tengku Sarena binti Tengku Abu Bakar.
Y.M. Ungku Suraiya binti Dato' Ungku Omar.
 
MALACCA-JOHOR JOHOR-SINGAPORE
JOHOR DUNGUN LINGGA PAHANG
TRENGGANU ORDERS & DECORATIONS MAIN
I would be grateful to hear from anyone who may have changes, corrections or additions to contribute. If you do, please be kind enough to send me an e-mail using the contact details at:
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Copyright©Christopher Buyers, November 2000 - June 2012