TRAVANCORE

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The Kulasekhara Dynasty

GENEALOGY

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1729 - 1758  H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Valia Martanda Varma I [Anizham Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Travancore. b. at Iranyal, 1705, as Prince Vira Bala Martanda Varma, younger son of Rani Kartika Tirunal, Senior Rani of Attingal, and a Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur educ. privately. Appointed as Third Prince of Venad by his uncle, January 1722. Voluntarily accepted demotion to third prince, following the adoption of the Tellicherri prince later that same year. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi of the Trippapur Swarupam and Kilapperur Illam and ruler of Travancore, 30th August 1729. Ascended the gadi, at the Padmanabhapuram Palace, Thukalai, 1st October 1729. Opposed by the sons of his uncle, who conspired with eight Nair chiefs in an attempt to oust him from the throne, forcing him from the capital. A great warrior and astute politician, he formed a new army, defeated his cousins and began the unification of the principalities and expansion of the kingdom. He achieved a spectacular victory against the Dutch in 1741, then appointed Eustace De Lennoy, the defeated Dutch naval captain as commander of his modern army of Christian and Muslim soldiers. Driving all his enemies before him, he annexed one principality after another until his forces advanced up to the borders of Cochin in 1746. He permanently removed his capital to Trivandrum in 1745, where he restored and beautified the ancient temples. Surrendered his kingdom to the family deity Sri Anantha Padmanabhan on 3rd January 1750, thenceforward adopted the title of Sri Padmnabha Dasa Vanchipala. Revered as the founder of modern Travancore (Thiruvithamkor). m. Ramanamadathil Ammachi Panapilla Amma, who rebelled against her husband after he desroyed the Ettuveetil Pillamar in 1730 and was subsequently punished by being enslaved with the fisherfolk, the only sister of the Ramanamadhom Pillai, one of the Ettuveetil Pillamar or eight Nair chiefs. He d. at the Upparika Malika, Padmanabhapuram Palace, Thukalai, 7th July 1758, having had issue, an only daughter:
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1758 - 1798 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Rama Varma II [Kartika Tirunal] Dharmaraja, Kulasekhara Perumal, Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. 1724, as Prince Vanchi Bala Martanda Rama Varma, elder son of Rani Parbathi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Sri Kerala Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle as adhinam of the Trippappur Swarupam and as ruler of Travancore, 7th July 1758. Attacked by Tipu Sultan in 1790, the Raja withstood the invasion for six months, defeated Tipu twice then appealed to the British for assistance. Signed a Treaty of friendship and protection with the HEIC, 17th November 1795. Granted the hereditary titles of Manney Sultan, Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Bahadur, and Shamsher Jang, in reward for his services against Tippu Sultan. Removed his capital from Padmanabhapuram to Tiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) in 1795. He made the pilgrimage to Rameswaram in 1784, to which he had already made considerable donations, improved the roads leading to it from Travancore and policing the jungles through which they passed. A distinguished patron of the arts and literature, who mastered Sanskrit, Persian, Hindustani, Tamil, Portuguese, and Dutch. He was also responsible for the restoration of the Sri Padmabha Swami Temple. Musician and composer of Kritis and Kathakali plays. Author of "Abhinaya Darpana" and "Balarama Bharatha". m. (first) a lady from the Arumana House. m. (second) Vadasseri Ammachi Panapilla Srimathi Kali Amma Nagamani Amma. m. (third) a lady from the Nagercoil House. m. (fourth) a lady from the Thiruvattar House. He d. at the Puttan Malika, Trivandrum Fort, 17th February 1798, having had issue, including a daughter by his fourth wife:
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1798 - 1810 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma II [Avitam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. at Quilon, 1782, only surviving son of Rani Attham [Chadayam Tirunal], of Attingal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 17th February 1798. He d. at Trivandrum Fort, 7th November 1810.
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1810 - 1813 H.H. Sri Padmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bayi [Ayilyam Tirunal], Senior Rani of Attingal and Rani Regent of Travancore. b. 1791, elder daughter of Rani Parvati Bayi [Attam Tirunal], by her husband, a Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri from the Parappanad Royal House, educ. privately. Installed on the death of her brother as Rani Regent and interim ruler of Travancore 7th November 1810 (pending the birth of a son and heir). Ceased to enjoy that position on the birth of her eldest son, 16th April 1813. Continued as Regent until her death. She was one of the most distinguished rulers of Travancore, instituting many reforms and advances in administration, education, and welfare. m. M.R.Ry. Sri Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri (d. December 1845), eldest son of Princess Injanji Amma Tampuratti of Changannasseri, youngest daughter of Princess Kunjikutti Tampuratti of the Parappanad Royal House, who fled to Travancore with her three sons and five daughters when Hyder Ali invaded Malabar. She d. at Kanni, 18th August 1815, having had issue, two sons and two daughters:
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