TRAVANCORE

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The Kulasekhara Dynasty

GENEALOGY

continued from the previous page.
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The following represents the best guess at the relationships between family members at this period in history. However, the practice of cross adoption between the various branches of the family at this time, make relationship discriptions very difficult to follow. People described as brother and sister within one branch of the family may be described as uncle and niece in another branch, and then turn out to be first cousins in their natural birth family.
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An example of the complexity may be gleaned from the adoption that occurred at Pullikottu Palace on 9th Tai 797 ME. Raja Ravi Varma of Venad (of the Trippappur Swarupam), Martanda Varma Anusham Tirunal of Chiravay, and two junior princesses of Attingal (Atham Tirunal and Ayilyam Tirunal) were adopted into the Pokam Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal and Aditya Varma Makayiram Tirunal. The latter were both adopted on the following day into the Trippappur Swarupam.
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The Senior Rani Pooram Tirunal of Attingal (unnamed but possibly the same as Nambirattiyar Ammai, recorded as Senior Rani of Attingal in 1610). She had issue or adopted a son and a daughter:
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1610 – 1662 Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma [Revati Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive uncle as head of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad, 6th September 1610 (relinquished 1620?). Assumed the headship of the Chiravay Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 1628 (relinquished 1647). He went on pilgrimage to Rawamswaram in 1620. Faced with a contest for the throne throughout his reign. Adopted into the Pokam Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal, at Pullikottu Palace, Trivandrum, January 1622. Adopted into Kunnummel Elayadam Swarupam (Kottarakkara) by Vira Kerala Varma Pooyam Tirunal, at Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, July 1623. He d. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum, 11th August 1662 .
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1662 – 1671 Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace,  June 1630. Succeeded 1651 or 827ME. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 11th August 1662. Assumed the Headship of Jayatunganad (Quilon) 1667. He d. at the Kalkulam Fort Palace, 13th September 1671.
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1671 – 1677 Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace, June 1630. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 13th September 1671. Opposed by the pillamar, who conspired to burn the palace and cause him to flee the capital. He was k. (poisoned by the Yogakkars) at the Darbhakkulangara Palace, Kalkulam, between 28th January/25th February 1677.
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1677 – 1678 Raja Sri Ramaraja Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad (first time) – see below.
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1678 – 1681 Raja Sri Kerala Varma, Raja of Venad, elder son of the Princess of Nedumangadu, of the Perakat Tavazhi, educ. privately. Succeeded as Prince of Nedumangadu on the death of his uncle. Adopted into the Kyamkulam branch of the Cheraway Swarupam, 1677. He claimed that his mother had been adopted into the Trippappur Swarupam of the Venad Royal House, at the same time as his uncle, by Raja Ravi Varma in 1621. Consequently, declared the adoption of 1671 as invalid and claimed the throne for himself. He then joined forces with the discontented pallamars, defeated Rani Ummayamma Aswathi Tirunal in late 1677 and opened negotiations with her mother. The old Rani Makayiram Tirunal having expired before the negotiations were complete, he seized the Royal regalia and proclaimed himself ruler in 1678. Defeated and expelled from Trivandrum in 1681 by Prince Kerala Varma, the Second Tampuran of Iranyal. He subsequently mad peace with Rani Ummayamma but failed to secure recognition as Second Tampuran of Venad. He d. 1693.
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1677-1678 and 1681-1704 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Ravi Varma [Kartika Tirunal], Samgramadhira Kulasekhara, Raja of Venad. b. 1668, educ. privately. Adopted from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of the Cochin Royal family by the Junior Rani of Attingal, Aswathi Tirunal, in 1671. Thereby excluding the collateral branches of the family, including the Elayadathu Swarupam of Kottarakara, Peraka Thavazhi of Nedumangadu and the Quilon branch. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, Raja Aditya Varma, 1677. Installed at Padnabhapuram, 1678. Reigned under the regency of his mother until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 1684. The pillamars refused to acknowledge his succession and withheld their payments of tribute, causing a severe financial crisis. The Padmanabhaswami Temple had to be closed and the inability to forward tribute to the ruler of Madurai resulted in invasion and pillage. His mother consequently assumed the regency in spite of her own mother, took measures to re-open the temple, forced the pillamar to pay homage and secured the installation of her son as the Kulasekhara Perumal. He fled to Varkalai with his mother after her defeat by the Prince of Nedumangadu in late 1677, remaining there when deposed by him in 1678. Restored by his half-brother, the Second Tampuran of Iranyal in 1681. Reigned under the Co-Regency of his adoptive mother and adoptive half-brother until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 1684. He later turned over the administration to the Second Prince in 1695 and after his death to his adoptive mother in 1696. Resumed full control over state affairs when she died in February 1697. The remainder of his reign witnessed a failure to reconcile differences with either the pillamars or the ruler of Madurai, the state being plundered by both whenever they pleased. He d. at Padmanabhapuram Palace, Thukalai, 1704 (succ. by his adopted brother). ).
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1704 – 1705 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad (first time) – see below.
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1705 – 1707 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Unni Kerala Varma III, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, younger son of the Princess of Nedumangadu, of the Perakat Tavazhi, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother as Prince of Nedumangadu and Kayamkulam, 1693. Proclaimed as ruler of Venad by the pillamar in February 1705, after they ignored the rights of Prince Aditya Varma following the death of his brother in 1704. He was k. in battle with his nephew, the Prince of Kayamkulam, December 1707.
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1707 – 1711 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja ..., Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of the Princess of Nedumangadul, educ. privately. He succeeded his maternal uncle as Prince of Nedumangudu in December 1707, thereby becoming the senior muppu of all three swarupam and thus proclaimed himself as Kulasekhara Perumal. Supported by the ruler of Madurai and the larger portion of the pillamar. Concluded peace with Aditya Varma in January 1711, when he received recognition as ruler with Aditya Varma as Heir Apparent. He d. at Trivandrum, 24th May 1711.
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1704-1705 & 1711–1721 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad, second son of of Ittammar Raja of Beypore Thattarikovilakam, of the Kolathundu Royal House, by his wife, a princess of from the Kolathunad Royal House, educ. privately. Adopted by the Rani Regent Umayamma of Attingal, 1696. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1704. Ignored by the pillamar, who recognised the Prince of Nedumangadu ruler in his stead in February 1705. Allied himself with the Rani of Karungappali and set about recovering his throne. Settled at Kalkulam, from whence he opposed the prince of Nedumangadul by making alliances with the Dutch and the exiled princes of the Laccadives, Mammali Kitavus and Kunju Koyamu. He then fell-out with the latter and concluded a truce with the pillamar, who abandoned the Nedumangadul prince in his favour in December 1708. Fled to Quilon in March 1709. Concluded peace with the Nedumangadul prince in January 1711, wherin the latter received full recognition as ruler and Aditya Varma became his Heir Apparent or Elaya Raja. Succeeded as ruler on his death, 24th May 1711. He d. (poisoned by the eight Nair lords?) at he Darpakulangara Palace Padmanabhapuram, Thukalai, early February 1721 (succ. by his full brother), having had issue, a daughter:
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1721 – 1729 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, third son of Ittammar Raja of Beypore Thattarikovilakam, of the Kolathundu Royal House, by his wife, a princess of from the Kolathunad Royal House, educ. privately. Appointed as Heir Apparent and invested with the title of Elaya Raja, March 1713. Succeeded to Venad on the death of his elder brother in early February 1721. Assumed the headship of Trippappur Swarupam at Tiruvattar Palace, 1st Panguny 896 ME. Although he continued the struggle against the collateral houses and the pillamar, he secured a signal victory against the Madurai ruler at Chiwandaram, 26th March 1723. Concluded a Treaty of Alliance with the HEIC on 15th August 1723, in which he gave them rights to avenge the Attingal massacre and their help in hiring Maravar cavalry from the Coromandel coast. He d. from smallpox, at Trivandrum, 27th January (or 9th February) 1729
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1729 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, elder son of Rani Kartika Tirunal, Senior Rani of Attingal, and a Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur educ. privately. Adopted into the Karunagappali branch of the Cheraway Swarupum in 1715, when he succeeded to the headship of that house and was styled Prince of Neyyatinkara. Installed as Heir Apparent with the title of Elaya Raja, by his uncle, January 1722. Voluntarily accepted demotion to third prince, following the adoption of the Tellicherri prince later that same year. Succeeded as ruler following that prince’s sudden death on 28th February 1729. m. at Nagercoil, Kittinathal Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Abiramapilla Kochamma, née Abhirami, a former devadasi or temple dancer ennobled just prior to her marriage, daughter of Krishnan Kochu Kumara Pillai, a Bengali or Tamil gentleman from outside Travancore. He d. from smallpox, at Kalkulam, 30th August 1729, having had issue, two sons and a daughter*:
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*These children were thought to be the children of Rama Varma (r 1721-1729) but a note from their uncle Martanda Varma to Paliyath Achan dated 23 March 1742; ARA, VOC 2564, fol. 2688vo reads “Since the deaths of my predecessors Aditya and Rama Varma and our brother, the Desingadu, the Tambi, son of our deceased brother, the Mutaliyar and the madumbimar united against me and committed several hostilities. See Mark de Lannoy, The Kulasekhara Perumals of Travancore: History and State Formation in Travancore from 1671 to 1758. Research School CNWS, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1997, p45.
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