KEDAH

GENEALOGY

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1688 - 1698 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zia ud-din al-Mukarram Shah [Al-Marhum Bukit Pinang al-Awwal], Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State of Kedah Dar ul-Aman, eldest son of H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Zia ud-din al-Mukarram Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhi ud-din Mansur Shah, Sultan of Kedah Dar ul-Aman, by his second wife, Che’ Sepa Chandra, educ. privately. Became Regent for his aged father, 1682. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1st May 1688. Removed his capital to Kota Bukit Pinang. m. Tunku Maheran. He d. at the Istana Baginda, Kota Bukit Penang, 17th November 1698 (bur. there), having had issue, three sons and one daughter:
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1698 – 1706  H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan ‘Abdu’llah al-Mu’azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah [Al-Marhum Bukit Pinang al-Thani], Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State of Kedah Dar ul-Aman, younger son of H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zia ud-din Mukarram Shah, Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State of Kedah Dar ul-Aman, by his wife, Tengku Maheran, educ. privately. Appointed as Heir Apparent with the title of Raja Muda, on the death of his elder brother, 1678. Succeeded on the death of his father, 17th November 1698. m. (first) Wan Nang Mas, Che’ Puan Paduka Bonda. m. (second) … He d. at the Istana Baginda, Kota Bukit Pinang, 22nd September 1706 (bur. at the Royal Cemetery, Kota Langgar, Alor Star), having had issue, two sons and one daughter by his first wife:
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1706 – 1710 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Taj ud-din Halim Shah I ibni al-Marhum Sultan ‘Abdu’llah al-Mu’azzam Shah [Al-Marhum Bukit Pinang al-Thani], Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State of Kedah Dar ul-Aman, younger son of H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan ‘Abdu’llah al-Mu’azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah, Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State of Kedah Dar ul-Aman, by his principal wife, Wan Nang Mas, educ. privately. Appointed as Heir Apparent with the title of Raja Muda, after his elder brother had left for Sumatra. Proclaimed Sultan by the nobles following the death of his father, 22nd September 1706. He d. at the Istana Baginda, Kota Bukit Pinang, 15th February 1710 (bur. at the Royal Cemetery, Kota Langgar, Alor Star).
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1710 – 1778 H.H. al-Azizzu ul-Mulk al-Qadir al-Ghalib Ghahr al-Maghlub, us-Sultan Khalifatu’llah ‘Ala Da’irah Kedah, Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zain al-’Adilan Mu’azzam Shah II Khalifat ul-Rahman ibni al-Marhum Sultan ‘Abdu’llah al-Mu’azzam Shah [Al-Marhum Kota Star al-Awwal], Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan Besar of the State of Kedah Dar ul-Aman*. b. ca. 1699, elder son of H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan ‘Abdu’llah al-Mu’azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah, Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of the State of Kedah Dar ul-Aman, by his principal wife, Wan Nang Mas, educ. privately. Went on pilgrimage to Jambi and Palembang, where he met the Arab religious teacher Shaikh Abdul Jalil, then journeyed with him to Java and India. Proclaimed on the death of his nephew, 15th February 1710. Returned to the mainland from his exile in Langkawi and formally installed at the Balai Penghadapan, Istana Bukit Pinang, May 1710. Transferred his capital to Alor Star in 20th December 1735. Accepted Burmese suzerainty after the sack of Ayudhya in 1767, but submitted tribute to avoid a Siamese invasion by Thaksin in 1769. Fled to Kangar, in Perlis, when the Bugis invaded and took Kuala Kedah Fort in March 1771. He appealed to the British for help and signed a contract of alliance with Edward Monckton, 20th April 1772 (repudiated July 1772). m. (first) Nang Che’ Puan Paduka Bonda** (bur. Langgar), a commoner, probably of Bugis descent. m. (second) ca 1749, H.H. Tunku Putri, Raja Permaisuri, daughter of Y.M. Tunku Ishak, Tunku Paduka Maharaja Temenggong Anggota Desa, by his wife, Y.A.M. Tunku Latifa binti al-Marhum Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah, daughter of H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zia ud-din Mukarram Shah, Sultan of Kedah. m. (third) a commoner. m. (fourth) another commoner. He d. at the Istana Baginda, Alor Star, 23rd September 1778 (bur. Kota Star Cemetery), having had issue, four sons and two daughters:
* There are at least three seal impressions for this ruler which survive. Although partly illegible, the first dates from 1757 and gives his parentage as “ibni al-Sultan Muhammad Shah ”. The second dates from 1777 and says “Muhammad Jiwa Zain al-’Adilan Mu’azzam Shah ibni Muhammad” The third seal is undated and says “Muhammad Jiwa bin Ata’ullah”. They suggest that he was the son of Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah II (died 17th November 1698) rather than Sultan ‘Abdu’llah al-Mu’azzam Shah, as related in the state history and royal genealogies. Perhaps one possibility may be that he was actually a posthumous son of Sultan Atau’llah Muhammad Shah II, unable to complete the burial customs for his father and thus assume power at his father's death. Consequently, he may have been raised by Sultan ‘Abdu’llah al-Mu’azzam Shah and subsequently succeeded after his son's death. This may provide the explanation for the several rebellions throughout his reign, by various members of his family, who may have regarded his title to the crown as invalid according to certain tenets of Muslim property law or family customs.
** One source idenifies this lady with Nang Che Puan, whose grave has been found at TDC Alor Star, Bangunan Mahkamah Lama.
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