KELANTAN

BRIEF HISTORY

Kelantan was once a powerful state with ancient trade links with China, Champa and India, but became tributary to the Majapahit Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. It re-established its independence under Raja Kumar, ca. 1411. It became an important centre for trade and commerce during the fifteenth century, but fell to Malacca in 1499. Following the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511, the state disintegrated into several petty principalities. These principalities were conquered again by the Siamese and made subject to Patani I 1603.  In 1760, a certain Kubang Labu succeeded in unifying the disparate territories into a single state once more, but he was overthrown four years later. Long (Luang) Yunus seized the throne and proclaimed himself Raja of Kelantan in 1764 but the state fell under the control of Trengganu after his death. Long Muhammad, younger son of Yunus, declared himself Sultan in 1800. He was eventually accepted by the Siamese as ruler of a separate tributary, twelve years later. Kelantan was transferred to British protection by the terms of the Anglo-Siamese treaty of 1909. Britain paying Siam for all outstanding debts and assuming responsibility for them in Siam's stead. Negeri Kelantan Dar ul-Naim became one of the Unfederated Malay States in 1911.

The Japanese invaded Kelantan on 8th December and were in full occupation by the 22nd of December 1941. They transferred Kelantan to Thai control in 1943. The state was freed from Japanese occupation on 8th September 1945 and became a state of the Federation of Malaya on 1st February 1948. It joined the other states of the peninsular to form the Federation of Malaya on 31st August 1957 and became a state of Malaysia on 16th September 1963.
 
Sultan Ismail Petra was constitutionally deposed by the State Succession Council in favour of his eldest son in September 2010, after failing to recover from a severe and delibitating stroke in the previous May. This followed several months of challenges to the constitutional arrangements made in its wake by several disgruntled members of the Royal Family.

STYLES & TITLES:
The ruling prince: Ke Bawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia al-Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Bagi Negara Kelantan Dar ul-Naim, i.e. Sultan and Head of the State of Kelantan, with the style of His Royal Highness.
The Royal consort of the ruling prince: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Raja Perempuan Negara Kelantan Dar ul-Naim, i.e. the Raja Perempuan of Kelantan, with the style of Her Royal Highness. Previously styled Sultana and Raja Permaisuri.
The Heir Apparent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Mahkota Negara Kelantan Dar ul-Naim, i.e. the Crown Prince of Kelantan, with the style of His Highness.
The Royal consort of the Heir Apparent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Ampuan Mahkota Negara Kelantan Dar ul-Naim, i.e. the Crown Princess of Kelantan, with the style of Her Highness.
The non-Royal consort of the Heir Apparent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Puan Mahkota Negara Kelantan Dar ul-Naim, i.e. the Crown Princess of Kelantan, with the style of Her Highness.
The Heir Presumptive: Yang Amat Mulia Tengku Bendahara Negara Kelantan Dar ul-Naim, with the style of His Highness.
The Regent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Pemangku Raja Negara Kelantan Dar ul-Naim, i.e. the Prince Regent of Kelantan, with the style of His Highness.
Other male members of the Royal family, descended in the male line: Yang Mulia Tengku (personal name) bin (father's title and name).
Other female members of the Royal family, descended in the male line: Yang Mulia Tengku (personal name) binti (father's title and name).
The junior wives of the ruling prince, the Heir Apparent and other princes: Yang Mulia Che' (personal name) binti (father's title and name).

RULES OF SUCCESSION:
Male primogeniture.

ORDERS & DECORATIONS:
See link below.

SELECT GLOSSARY:
See under Malaysia.

SOURCES:
Abdullah b. Muhammad (Nakula). Keturunan Raja-Raja Kelantan dan Peristiwa-peristiwa Bersejarah, Perbadanan Muzium Negeri Kelantan, Kota bharu, 1981.
Prof. P.E. de Josselin de Jong. Who's Who in the Malay Annals, Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume XXXIV, Part 2, 1961.
Anker Rentse, Salsilah Raja-raja Kelantan. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume XIV, Part 3, 1936.
Ensiklopedia Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Melayu, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1995.
The Leaders of Malaya and Who's Who 1957-1958, J. Victor Morais, Kuala Lumpur, 1958.
Oleh Mohd. Zain Saleh. Keluarga Diraja Kelantan Darulnaim, Istana Negeri, Kubang Kerian, 1987.
Rahmat bin Sharipan. Perembangang Politik Melayu Tradisional Kelantan 1776-1842, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1979.
William R Roff (ed). Kelantan: Religion, Society and Politics in a Malay State. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1974.
Sejarah Trengganu oleh Misbaha. Mansor Priting Press, Trengganu, 1968.
Cyril Skinner and Justin Corfield. Rama III and the Siamese Expedition to Kedah in 1839, The Dispatches of Luang Udomsombat. Monash Papers on Southeast Asia - No. 30. Centre for South East Asian Studies, Monash University, Clayton, 1993.
Sa'ad Shukri bin Haji Muda, Abdullah Al-Qari bin Haji Salleh & Drs. Abdul Rahman Al-Ahmadi. Detik2 Sejarah Kelantan. Pustaka Aman Press, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, 1971.
Ibrahim Syukri. History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani. Center for International Studies, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 1985.
Who's Who in Malaysia and guide to Singapore. J. Victor Morais, Kuala Lumpur, 1967-1978.

SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
Hasmadi ibni Ismail.
Kartina Paris.
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