1864 - 1907 H.M. Emperor Kwangmu-je [Kojong T’ongchŏn Yungwun Chogŭk T’onyun Chŏngsŏng Kwangŭi Myŏnggong T’aedŏk Yojun Sunhwi Wumo Tanggyŏng Ŭngmyŏng Ipkŭi Chihwa Shinnyŏl Ŏhun Hongŏp Kyegi Sŏngyŏk Kŏnhaeng Konjŏng Yŏngŭi Honghyu Sugang Munhŏn Mujang Inik Chŏnghyo T’ae-Hwang-je] [Konyang], Emperor of Korea, GCIE (17.12.1900). b. at the Unhyŏn Palace, Seoul, 8th September 1852, as Yi Chae-wang [Hyong], youngest son of H.I.H. Prince Yi Ha-ŭng, Great Prince Regent of Hŭngsŏn, by his wife, H.I.H. Princess Yŏhŭng, educ. privately. Adopted by the Great Queen Cho, to be the son of her late husband King Ikjong, and given the personal name of Yi Myŏng-bok. Succeeded 16th January 1864. Crowned at the Injŏng-jon, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul with the reign name of Kojong, 21st January 1864. Reigned under the Regency of his father until he came of age, 1873. Assumed the titles of Ŭng-Myŏng Ip-Kŭi Chi-Hwa Sin-Yŏl 18th July 1892, and Ta-gun-ju Pye-ha January 1895. Proclaimed the full independence of Korea, changed the name of the country to and assumed the title of Emperor of the Great Han Empire (T’ae-hanHwang-jePye-ha), 12th October 1897. Crowned at the Hwangudan, Seoul with the reign name of T’ae-hanChegukKwangmu (shining warrior), 14th October 1897. Narrowly escaped death in the “Coffee Poisoning Plot” believed to have been instigated by the Japanese in September 1898. Deposed by the Japanese in favour of his son and heir and entitled T’ae-Hwang-je (Great Emperor), 20th July 1907. Following the annexation of Korea by Japan on 29th August 1910, his ranks and titles were further reduced to Tŏksu-gungYiT’ae-wang Ch’ŏn-ha (translated by the Japanese as Retired “Great Prince” Yi of the Toksu Palace, even though T’ae-wang actually means Great King). Field Marshal and Supreme C-in-C of the Imperial Korean Army, Admiral of the Fleet Imperial Korean Navy. Founder of the Grand Orders of the Golden Measure, the Auspicious Stars and the Plum Blossoms and the T’aeguk Order of Merit on 17th April 1900, and the Orders of the Purple Falcon and the Eight Trigrams on 16th April 1901. Rcvd: the Collar of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum of Japan (8.4.1897), the Imperial Order of the Double Dragon 1st class (1st grade) of China, Knt of the Orders of St Stanislas of Russia, the Elephant of Denmark (1.12.1903), and the Black Eagle of Prussia (20.3.1904), GC of the Orders of the Legion of Honour of France, SS Maurice & Lazarus of Italy (23.7.1895), Carlos III with collar of Spain (29.11.1900), and Leopold of Belgium (mil 23.3.1901). m. (first) 1864, Lady Yi, Yŏngbo-dang Kwi-in [Sanggung] (b. 14th February 1843; d. at Seoul, 17th December 1928 n.s., bur. Kwiin-myo, So-sam-nŭng, Koyang), granted the rank and title of Suk-won 29th January 1880, and prom to Kwi-in 27th May 1906. m. (second) 1865, Lady Yi, Naean-dang Kwi-in (b. 6th August 1847; d. at the Sumundong, Seoul, 13th February 1914 n.s., bur. Kwiin-myo, So-sam-nŭng, Koyang), granted the rank and title of So-ŭi 3rd August 1900, and prom to Kwi-in 27th May 1906. m. (third) at the Injŏng-jon, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul, 21st March 1866, H.I.M. Empress Min Cha-yŏng [Myŏng-sŏng Wun-song Sun-kiung Tuk-sung Hwang-hu] (b. at at Hunghyon, Yŏju, Kyŏnggi, 17th November 1851 n.s.; k. by Japanese agents at the Okhoru Pavilion, Kŏnchŏng-jŏn, Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, 8th October 1895 n.s., bur. Hong-nŭng, Kŭmgok), raised to the title of Hap-Tjén 18th July 1892, degraded to a Concubine of the first rank 10th October 1895 (rescinded 26th November 1895), and raised to the posthumous rank of Empress as Myŏng-sŏng Wun-song Sun-kiung Tuk-sung Hwang-hu 14th October 1897, only daughter of H.E. Min Ch’i-rok, Prince Yŏ-sung (Yeo-sung Pu-won-gun), of Yŏju, by his wife, Lady Yi, Princess Consort Hanchang. m. (fourth) Lady Chang Kwi-in (bur. Chang-myo, So-o-nŭng), granted the rank and title of Suk-won 17th September 1900, and prom to Kwi-in 27th May 1906. m. (fifth) at the Russian Legation, Seoul, 1897, Lady Ŏm Sŏn-yŏng, Sunhŏn Hwang-kwi-bi (b. at Yŏngwŏl, 5th November 1854; d. from enteric fever, at Toksu Palace, Seoul, 20th July 1911, bur. Yŏnghwi-wŏn, Ch’ongnyang-ni), educ. privately, granted the title of Kwi-in together with the designation of Sunhŏn (the Noble Lady Sunhon, i.e. royal concubine of the second rank) 25th October 1897, raised to the title of Sunhŏn-bi (Royal Consort Sunhon) 18th September 1901, Sunhŏn Kwi-bi (Royal Consort of the First Rank Sunhon) November 1902, and SunhonHwang-kwi-bi (Principal Imperial Consort Sunhon) 20th December 1903, founder of the Yang County High Sch in 1905, Myungshin Girl’s Sch and Jinmyeong County Girls’ High Sch in 1906, rcvd: GC of the Order of the Auspicious Phoenix (1907), sister of Lieutenant-General H.E. Ŏm Chun-wan, and eldest daughter of Ŏm Chin-sam, from the Ŏm clan of Yŏngwŏl, by his wife Lady Chŭng Chan-ch’ŏng. “Emily Brown” of New York Times fiction! m. (sixth) 1906, Lady Yi Wan-hŭng, Kwanghwa-dang Kwi-in (b. 1885; d. at Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, 10th November 1967, bur. Kwiin-myo, Kŭmgok), raised to the rank of Kwi-in 11th May 1914. m. (seventh) 1911, Lady Yang, Pongyŏng-dang Kwi-in (b. 27th September 1882; d. at the Pongyŏng-dang, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul, 22nd April 1929, bur. Kwiin-myo, So-sam-nŭng, Koyang), raised to the title of Pongyŏng-dang Kwi-in 1912. m. (eighth) Lady Chŏng, Pohyŏn-dang Kwi-in (b. at Hansung, 23rd February 1882; d. at Seoul, 1904, bur. Kwiin-myo, So-sam-nŭng, Koyang). m. (ninth) 1911, Lady Kim Ok-ki, Samch’uk-dang Kwi-in (b. 1889; d.s.p. at Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, 23rd September 1970, bur. Kwiin-myo, Namyang-ju, Kŭmgok), raised to the rank of Samch’uk-dangKwi-in 1945. m. (a) Lady Kim, Chŏnghwa-dang Sang-kung (b. 1871; d.s.p. at Seoul, 19xx, bur. Kwiin-myo, So-sam-nŭng, Koyang), a lady married for political reasons but unwanted by Ko-jong. m. (b) Lady Yŏm, Sang-kung. m. (c) Lady Sŏ, Sang-kung. m. (d) Lady Kim Chung-yŏn, Sang-kung. He d. at the Hamnyong-jon, Tŏksu Palace, Seoul, 21st January 1919 (bur. Hongyu-nŭng, Kŭmgok, Namyang-ju) (succ. by his fifth son), having had issue, nine sons and four daughters:
2) H.R.H. Prince (Won-ja) Yi …b. at the Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, 9th November and d. 13th November 1871 (s/o Empress Myong-song).
3) H.I.H. Crown Prince (Hwang-t’ae-ja) Yi Ch’ŏk, Great Prince of Sonjong (Sonjong Ch’in-hwang), who ascended the Peacock Throne as H.I.M. Emperor Yung-hui [Hwang-je][Lyung-hui], Emperor of Korea (s/o Empress Myong-song) – see below.
4) H.R.H. Prince (Wang-ja) Yi …(s/o Empress Myong-song). He d. at the Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, early 1875, aged fourteen days.
5) H.R.H. Prince (Wang-ja) Yi T’ae (s/o Empress Myong-song). He d. at the Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, early 1878, aged 105 days.
6) H.I.H. Prince (Hwang-ja) Yi Kang, Prince Ŭi-hwa (Eui-wha Ch’in-hwang Yi Kang Chun-ha). b. at the Pomsugi-kung, Seoul, 30th March 1877 (s/o Lady Chang Kwi-in), as Prince Pyŏng-gil, educ. Nobles’ Sch, Seoul, Keio Univ (LLB), Tukuji, Tokyo, Japan, Roanoke Coll (M.Sc.), Salem, Virginia, and Ohio Wesleyan Univ (M.Phil.), Delaware, USA. Granted the title of Hwa-gun ma ma together with the designation of Ŭi and the style of His Royal Highness 28th January 1892. Promoted to the rank of Ŭi-hwa Ch’in-hwang (righteous imperial prince) together with the style of His Imperial Highness, 24th July 1906. Special Ambassador to the Emperor of Japan 1894-1895, Lieutenant-Field Marshal of the Army 8/4/1905, Presdt Korean Red Cross Soc 1906-1910. Styled Prince (Kong) Ko Ri with the style of His Highness by the Japanese after 29th August 1910 (ignored in Korea). Escaped to Manchuria and attempted to join the provisional government in 1919, but the Japanese apprehended him and escorted back to Korea. Stripped of his Royal rank and titles in June 1930, and thereafter styled Yi Kang Chonha or His Excellency Yi Kang. Rcvd: the Grand Orders of the Golden Measure and the Auspicious Stars (9.4.1905), Imperial 50 Years Felicitations (1901), Forty Year Reign (1902), Crown Prince’s Wedding (1907), Enthronement (1907), and Imperial Tour (1909) Commemorative Medals, GC of the Orders of the Chrysanthemum (8.1.1924), Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers (3.5.1906), and Sacred Treasure, and Red Cross Hon Membership Gold Medal of Japan. m. (first) at Seoul, 6th December 1893, H.H. Princess Yonwon [Sadanggung] (b. at Seoul, 22nd December 1880; d.s.p. there, 14th January 1963, bur. at Hong-yu-nŭng, Kŭmgok, in 1996), née Kim Su-dŏk [Yonan Kim-Ssi], raised to the title of Princess Consort Yonwon (Yonwon Gun-pu-in) 6th December 1893, rcvd: GC of the Order of the Auspicious Phoenix of Korea (1907), Imperial 50th Birthday (1901), 40th Year Reign (1902), and Enthronement (1907) Commemorative Medals, and the Order of the Precious Crown 2nd class of Japan (8.1.1924), eldest daughter of H.E. Kim Sa-chun [Baron Kim Shiei], of Yonan. m. (i) Lady Chung, Lady Sukwan-dang (d. in childbirth, 28th October 1909). m. (ii) Kim Hŭng-in, Lady Suin-dang. m. (iii) Chŏng Un-sŏk, Lady Suhyŏn-dang. m. (iv) Cho Pyŏng-suk. m. (v) Yi Hui-chun, Lady Sudŏk-dang. m. (vi) Kim Chŏng-wan, Lady Suwan-dang. m. (vii) Pak Yŏng-hui, Lady Sugil-dang. m. (viii) Lady Song. m. (ix) Kim Chang-hee, Lady Sugyŏng-dang. m. (x) Kim Kŭm-tŏk. m. (xi) Lady Ham Kae-pong. m. (xii) Lady Kim Hae-su. m. (xiii) Lady Hong Chŏng-sun (b. at Nanyang, 1919), a former telephone operator. He d. at Sŏngnak-won, Sŏngpuk-dong, Sŏngpuk-gu, Seoul, 15th August 1955 (bur. at Hong-yu-nŭng, Kŭmgok, Namyang-ju, in 1996), having had issue, thirteen sons and nine daughters*:
a) Colonel H.H. Prince (Wang-son) Yi Kŏn [Ken Ri]. b. at Seoul, 28th October 1909 (s/o Lady Sukwan-dang), as Prince Yong-gil, educ. Military Prep Sch and Imperial Military Acad, Tokyo. Raised by Princess Yonwon. Succeeded his father as head of his house, following the removal of his titles by the Japanese authorities in June 1930. Cmsnd as 2nd-Lieut of Cavalry Imperial Japanese Army 1930, prom Lieut 1932, Instr of Horsemanship at the Imperial Military Acad, prom Capt 1936, prom Maj 1940, prom Lt-Col 1943, retired as Col 1945. Became a Japanese citizen in 1950 after his princely status was abolished in Japan 14th October 1947. Assumed the name of Ken’ichi Momoyama. Proprietor of a Stationery business and bean-soup shop in Shibuya, later a German translator and a farm manager. Chair Japanese Classic Car Club. Rcvd: the Grand Order of the Auspicious Stars, GC of the Orders of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers, and Sacred Treasure, Showa Enthronement (1928), Tokyo Earthquake Rehabilitation (1930) Medals, the Red Cross Order of Merit, and the Red Cross Hon Membership Gold Medal of Japan. m. (first) at Tokyo, Japan, 5th October 1931 (div. there, May 1951), H.H. Princess Yoshiko (b. at Tokyo, Japan, 6th October 1911; d. there, 28th June 2006), educ. Jisshrin Sch, Tokyo, née Seiko Matsudaira, a name she resumed following her divorce, rcvd: GC of the Order of the Precious Crown (2nd class 5.10.1931), sometime Presdt Ginza Club, eldest daughter of Captain Yutaka Matsudaira [Hiroshi, Marquess Matsudaira], IJN, by his wife, Toshiko, the sister of H.I.H. Princess Nashimoto and aunt of H.I.H. Princess Chichibu of Japan, and daughter of Major-General H.E. Naohiro, 1st Marquis Nabeshima, 14th Daimyo of the Saga clan of Hizen, Kyushu, sometime Grand Master of Ceremonies and Japanese Ambassador to Italy. m. (second) at Tokyo, Japan, 1951, Yoshiko, eldest daughter of Toukiti Maeda, from Chichibu, Japan. He d. at Yono, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, 21st December 1991, having had issue, two sons and one daughter (possibly with two other daughters) by his first wife:
b) Lieutenant-Colonel H.H. Prince (Wang-son) Yi Wu [Gu Ri], Prince of Wanhŭng (Wanheung-gun). b. at the Suin-dang, Seoul, 15th November 1912 (s/o Lady Suin-dang) as Prince Song-gil, educ. Kyŏngsŏng Pre-sch and Chongro Elementary Sch, Seoul, Mil Prep Sch and Imperial Mil Acad, Tokyo, Japan. Adopted by his father’s first cousin, Prince Yi Chun-yong, and succeeded to his titles and estates on his death without a natural son in 1917. Cmsnd as 2nd-Lieut of Artillery Imperial Japanese Army, prom Maj 1942, served in Shanxi, China as GSO at Army HQ and information officer 1942-1944, prom Lieut-Col 5th Cavalry Regt 1944, GSO (education) attached Hiroshima 1945. Rcvd: GC of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers (3.5.1935), China Incident War Medal (1937), Showa Enthronement (1928), and Tokyo Earthquake Rehabilitation (1930) Commemorative Medals, the Red Cross Order of Merit, and the Red Cross Hon Membership Gold Medal of Japan. m. at Tokyo, 3rd May 1935, H.H. Princess Ch’anju [San Shu] (b. at Seoul, 11th December 1914; d. at Sukhwan, Seoul, 13th July 1995, bur. at Hong-yu-nŭng, Kŭmgok, Namyang-ju), Chair Foundation Sch Brd of Governors 1950-1961, rcvd: the Order of the Precious Crown 2nd class (3.5.1935), nee Pak Ch’anju, grand daughter of H.E. Pak Yŏng-hyo [Eiko, 1st Marquis Boku], sometime Vice-Presdt of the Japanese Privy Council and Master of the Household. He d. at the Naval First Aid Station, Ninoshima Island, 7th August 1945, from wounds received from the atomic bomb blast at Hiroshima (bur. at Hong-yu-nŭng, Kŭmgok, Namyang-ju, Korea) (his Japanese deputy committed harikiri by disembowelling himself after the funeral), having had issue, two sons:
ii) H.H. Prince Yi Chong [So Ri]. b. at Tokyo, Japan, 9th November 1940, educ. Donam Middle Sch, and Kyongbok High Sch, Seoul, and US National Science Coll (??), Knoxville, Tenn, USA. Presdt Syngman Rhee made a request to adopt him, but his mother flatly refused to countenance any such move. He was k. in an automobile accident in (Chicago?), USA, 1966 (bur. at Hong-yu-nŭng, Kŭmgok, Namyang-ju, Korea).
c) Yi Pang-ŭn*. b. at Seoul, 1914 (s/o Chŏng Un-sŏk) as Yi Hae-Chin [Hung-gil]. Adopted by Yi Ki-son of the line of Crown Prince Sŏhyon and renamed Yi Pang-ŭn. He d.s.p.unm. from pneumonia, 1951.
d) Yi Chaeng-ŭn *. b. at Seoul, 1915 (s/o Cho Pyong-suk) as Yi Hae-wan [Ch’ang-gil]. Adopted by Yi Hŏn-yong of the line of the Prince of Wanpyŏng, a great-great-grandson of Crown Prince Sado, and renamed Yi Chaeng. Fish trader. He d. in the USA, having had issue, two sons and two daughters.
e) Yi T’aek-ŭn [Yi Chu]*. b. at the Suin-dang, Seoul, 1918 (s/o Lady Suin-dang) as Yi Hae-il [Su-gil]. Adopted by Baron Yi In-yong of the line of the Great Prince of Inpyŏng, and his second wife, Lady Yi Si-hal. Renamed Yi T’aek-ŭn. Succeeded to the estates (and as heir to his Japanese peerage title of Baron) on the death of his adoptive father, 30th June 1950. Dir of Admin & Cultural Management. Chair of the Inpyeong Family Council 1974. m. (first) 1940, a Japanese lady (d. 1949). m. (second) 1954, Lady Kim Sin-dŏk, a Korean. He d. 10th December 1982, having had issue, three children by his second wife, including a son and a daughter:
f) Yi Kon-ŭn*. b. at the Suin-dang, Seoul, 1919 (s/o Lady Suin-dang), as Yi Hae-chang [Myong-gil]. Adopted by Baron Yi In-yong and renamed Yi Kon-ŭn. Sometime Librarian Capitol Hill. He d. in the USA, 1984, having had issue, a son:
i) Yi Chun. Executive with a medical device/diagnostics firm in Seoul.
g) Yi Kwang-ŭn [Lee Gwang]*. b. at Seoul, 1920 (s/o Song), as Yi Hae-chŏng [Hyŏng-gil], educ. Seoul National Univ (BA 1948). Adopted by Prince Yi Ki-yong [Kei Ri] and renamed Yi Kwang-ŭn. He was d. frim heart failure while swimming off Haeundae Beach, Pusan, 25th June 1952.
h) Yi Hyŏn-ŭn*. b. at Seoul, 1922 (s/o Kim Chang-hee), as Yi Hae-nyong [Kyŏng-gil]. Adopted into the Gyedong branch of the Yi Family and renamed Yi Hyŭn-ŭn. Converted to Christianity as a Roman Catholic in 1991 and lived in a seminary, where he painted. He d. unm. at a social centre, at Suwon, Kyŏnggi, 17th February 1996 (bur. there at the Roman Catholic Diocesan Cemetery).
i) (Hwangsilmyeong) Yi Gap-ŭn *. b. at Seoul, 1938 (s/o Lady Ham Kae-pong), as Yi Hae-nyong [Ch’ung-gil]. Adopted out and renamed Yi Gap. Settled in New York, USA, in 1981 but has since retired to Korea and settled in Seoul. Teacher. Adviser and consult to the Hyundai Corp. He had issue, two sons and one daughter:
i) Yi Sang-hyŏp, who was adopted by his first cousin and succeeded as H.I.H. Prince Yi Won, Head of the Imperial House of Korea- see below.
j) Yi Sŏk-ŭn [Lee Hai-Seok]*. b. at Sŏngpuk-dong, Sŏngpuk-gu, Seoul, 3rd August 1941 (lunar) (s/o Lady Hong Chŏng-sun), as Yi Hae-Sŏk [Yŏng-gil], educ. East Seoul Middle & High Schs, Hankuk Univ of Foreign Studies, Seoul, and in the USA. Adopted out and renamed Yi Son Sŏk. Evacuated to Shanghai during the Second World War. Became a popular singer and entertainer in 1961, served with the Korean Tiger Dvsn in Vietnam 1966-1968, until invalided home after a roadside mortar attack, returned to a singing career in 1970, lived in the USA 1979-1989, and gave up the stage in 1997. Presdt National Fed for Preserving the Great Korean Royal Court. m. (first) 1970 (div. 1971) ... m. (second) (div.) ... (b. 1932). m. (third) 1979 (sep.) Ch’ung-hee (b. 1953). He has issue, one son and two daughters, by different wives:
i) Yi Ch’ong Hun [Frank Lee]. b. 1980 (s/o Ch’ung-hee).
i) Yi Hong. b. at Seoul, 1974 (d/o the second wife), educ. HA Univ Graduate Sch of Industrial Design, Seoul. Television actress, model and industrial designer. m. 2000 (div.), Han Yŏng-kwang. She has issue, one daughter.
ii) Yi Chin. b. 1979, educ. Kyung Hee Univ, Seoul (BA). Ceremic artist. Mbr Royal Acad Art Foundation Central Cttee.
k) Yi Hwan-ŭn [Yi Pom]*. b. at Seoul, 1944 (s/o Kim Hae-su), as Yi Hae-sŏn [Mun-gil]. Adopted as the heir and successor of his kinsman Count Yi Chi-yong and renamed Yi Hwan. Settled in San Jose, California, USA. He d. after January 1975, having had issue.
l) Yi Chŭng-ŭn *. b. at Seoul, 1947 (s/o Lady Hong Chŏng-sun), as Yi Hae-chun [Chŏng-gil]. Adopted out and renamed Yi Chŭng. Settled in Los Angeles, California, USA.
a) Yi Nyŏng*. b. at the Sudok-dang, Seoul, 1918 (d/o Yi Hui-chun) as Yi Hae-han [Gilsum]. Adopted by Prince Yi Ki-yong [Kei Ri] and renamed Yi Nyŏng. She d. 1981.
b) Yi Chin*. b. at Sadong Palace, Seoul, 24th April 1919 (d/o Yi Hui-chun), as Yi Hae-wŏn [Gilun], educ. Kyungki Girls’ High Sch, Seoul. Adopted by Prince Yi Ki-yong [Kei Ri] and renamed Yi Chin. Settled in the USA 1992, but returned to Korea in 2002. “Enthroned” as “Empress of South Korea” (sic) at a Seoul hotel on 29th September 2006, in a copic-opera ceremony conducted by members of the so-called “Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk” (who are unconnected with the Yi Imperial line). m. at Seoul, 1938, Yi Sŭng-kyu [Lee Seung-gyu], educ. Keio Univ, Japan, who dissappeard after his kidnap by the North Koreaans when they invaded South Korea in 1950. She had issue, three sons and one daughter.
c) Yi Chan*. b. at Seoul, 1920 (d/o Kim Chŏng-wan) as Yi Hae-ch’un [Gilyeon]. Adopted by Prince Yi Ki-yong [Kei Ri] and renamed Yi Chan. m. Pak Chan-pŏm (b. 1917), a descendant of H.E. Pak Yŏng-ho, Prince of Kumoi-nŭng, and Marquis Boku Eiko. She d. 2009.
e) Yi Kong [Amy Hai Kyung Lee] *. b. at Seoul, 1930 (d/o Kim Kŭm-tŏk), as Yi Hae-kyŏng, educ. Kyungki Girls’ High Sch, Seoul, Ehwa Women’s Univ (BA in Music 1950), and Mary Hardin-Baylor Univ (MA Musicology 1959), Texas, USA. Formally adopted by Prince Yi Ki-yong [Kei Ri] and renamed Yi Kong, but raised by Princess Yonwon. Soprano singer, Teacher at the Pung Moon Women’s High Sch 1950-1956, emigrated to the USA 1956, Korean Studies Librarian, C.V. Starr East Asian Library of Columbia Univ, New York, Dir of Korean Collections, retd 1996. Author of “Na ŭi ahoji Ui ch’inwang: Choson Wangjo Majimak Wangnyo ŭi Haegorok” (My Father Prince Ui: Memoirs of the Last Princess of the Choson Dynasty) (1997), and joint author of “A Tree with Deep Roots: The Starr Korean Rare Book Collection” (1996), etc.
f) Yi Chang*. b. at Seoul, 1940 (d/o Kim Hae-su), as Yi Hui-cha. Adopted out and renamed Yi Chang. Settled in the USA.
g) Yi Yong*. b. at Seoul, 1944 (d/o Lady Hong Chŏng-sun), as Yi Hae-ran [Suk-ki]. Adopted out and renamed Yi Hong. Migrated to South America.
h) Yi Sa*. b. at Seoul, 1950 (d/o Lady Hong Chŏng-sun), as Yi Hae-nyŏn [Suk-hyang]. Adopted out and renamed Yi Sa.
i) Yi Min [Changhee Lee]*. b. at Seoul, 1953 (d/o Kim Hae-su), as Yi Hae-mun [Chang-hui]. Adopted out and renamed Yi Changhui. Settled in San Jose, California, USA.
7) H.I.H. Prince (Hwang-t’ae-ja) Yi Ŭn, Prince of Yŏng (Yeong Ch’in-hwang), Head of the Royal House of Korea (s/o Lady Om [Sunhon Hwang-kwi-bi) – see below.
8) H.H. Prince (Hwang-ja) Yi Yuk. b. at the Kwanghwa-dang, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul, ca 11th May 1914 (s/o Lady Yi Kwanghwa-dang Kwi-in). He d. at the Kwanghwa-dang, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul, January 1915, aged twenty months.
9) H.H. Prince (Hwang-ja) Yi Ŭi. b. at the Pohyŏn-dang, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul, 20th August 1915 n.s. (s/o Lady Chŏng, Pohyŏn-dang Kwi-in). He d. meningitis, at Seoul, 25th July 1916.
1) H.R.H. Princess (Wang-nyo) ... b. at the Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, May 1873 (d/o Empress Myong-song). She d. at the Kyŏngbok Palace, Seoul, November 1873 (or aged "222 days").
3) H.H. Princess (Wang-nyo) … (d/o Lady Yi Lady Naen-dang Kwi-in). She also d. in infancy.
4) H.H. Princess (Wang-nyo) Tŏkhae [Deokhye Ong-ju]. b. at the Pongyŏng-dang, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul, 25th May 1912 (d/o Lady Yang Pongyŏng-dang Kwi-in), educ. Peeresses’ Sch, Miyakezaka, Tokyo, Japan. Returned to Korea at the invitation of the Korean government 26th January 1962, when Naksŏn-jae was placed at her disposal at government expense. Rcvd: GC of the Order of the Auspicious Phoenix. m. at Tokyo, Japan, 8th May 1931, as his first wife (div. June 1955), Takeyuki So, 3rd Count So (b. 16th February 1908; m. second, Yoshie, daughter of Shigeru Kachimura, and d. 22nd April 1985, having had further issue, two sons and one daughter), poet and playright, sometime Professor at Reitaku Univ, Founder Dir of the Reitaku Univ English Drama Group (RUEDG) 1935, adopted son and successor of Shigemochi, 2nd Count So, of Tsushima, and son of Yorikyuki, Viscount Kuroda, probably by his wife, Reiko, daughter of Naoyasu Kuroda, Daimyo of Kurume. She d. at the Sugang-jae, Ch’angdŏk Palace, Seoul, 21st April 1989 (bur. Hong-yu-nŭng, Kŭmgok, Namyang-ju), having had issue, an only daughter:
a) Masae So [Chŏnghye]. b. at Tsushima, Japan, 14th August 1932, educ. Meiji Univ, Japan. m. (div.) Noboru Suzuki. She d. in Japan, 1955.
* All but the two eldest sons of Prince Ui were considered illegitimate, and their names not recorded in the Yi Family Register (Chonju Yi-ssi chokpo) when born. Princess Consort Yonwon subsequently arranged for their adoption by distant collateral relatives of the Imperial Family and the wider Yi clan. The princess could have adopted one or more of these sons herself, thereby retaining them within the Imperial Family and conferring certain rights of succession. However, for her own reasons, she seems to have avoided this option entirely.
The consequence of the adoptions is that the natural children of Prince Ui belong to their adopted families and not to the Imperial line. They do not enjoy rights of succession to the throne. They are also ineligible for adoption again during their own lifetimes, and cannot regain entry into the Imperial line by such means. This effectively rules out any legitimate claim to the throne by Yi Seok or his siblings. On the other hand, their children and descendants remain eligible for adoption into the principal Imperial family line, so long as they have also not previously been adopted once during their own lifetimes.
Prince Yi Kang may also have had additional natural issue to those listed here. Included amongst them, possibly two sons born to an American woman, while he was a student at the Ohio Wesleyan University. The mother and sons arrived in Tokyo ca. 1919 claiming his paternity, but their subsequent history remains unknown.