SELECT GLOSSARY: bi: consort, the suffix used for the senior wives of the King. bin: concubine, the suffix used in the titles of the second highest rank of the King's wives, usually those who had born a child by him. Bo: Imperial emblematic circular medallion, usually containing the five-clawed dragon. Bu-won-gun: Prince, title enjoyed by the King's father-in-law and honoured Ministers of the first rank.
Ch'angduk-gung: 'Palace of Illustrious Virtue'. Ch'anggyong-won: 'Garden of Bright Rejoicing'.
Changniwon-gyong: Master of Ceremonies. Chaui T'ae-bi: Great Dowager Queen.
Ch'in-hwang: 'Prince Imperial', or Prince with the style of His Imperial Highness. Cho-ha: His or Her Royal Highness Chog-wang-son: Prince, grandson of a King, descended in the male line from a Queen. Chon-ho: His or Her Majesty.
Chongil-p'um: 'first grade senior', the highest court rank or grade. Chonggu-p'um: 'ninth grade junior', the lowest court rank or grade. Chong-jon-mama: 'central palace', a reference to the Queen, in courtly language. Chong-myo: the Royal Ancestral Shrine. Chu Sang-tyen-ha: Royal style equivalent to His Majesty.
dang: building or apartment, used as a suffix to the titles of a concubine who had children by the King. The main part of her title being the name of the building in which her eldest child was born. Dong-dae-mun: 'Eastern Gate'. Geum-gwan: gold and horsehair headgear worn by nobles and courtiers. Geum-su-ojo-yong-bo: embroidered five clawed dragon motif, in gold thread on the Imperial emblematic medallion with a border of twenty-four scallops. Geunjung-jon: 'Audience Hall'. Gujang-bok: Royal ceremonial robes. Gun: sons of the King's secondary wives; eldest sons and eldest grandsons of taegun, borne by principal wives; all sons of a Crown Prince; and meritorious subjects of the first and second class. Gun-chom-wi: Prince Consort, son-in-law of a Crown Prince, husband of a Hyon-ju.
Gun-pu-in: the title of the consort of a Prince (Gun).
Gun-pu-wi: Prince Consort, son-in-law of a Crown Prince, husband of a Kun-ju.
Gun-wi: Prince Consort, son-in-law of a King, husband of a Kong-ju or Ong-ju.
Hamnyong-jon: 'Hall of Peace'. Han'gul: the simple phonetic alphabet invented by King Se-jong in the fifteenth century. Hong-yongpo: the King's red official robes. Hu-gung: a general term for a concubine or secondary wife. Husu: embroidered insignia of office worn as an apron, at the back of court attire.
Hwang: Imperial, yellow (hence, Imperial colour). Hwang-hu: 'wife of the Emperor', Empress. Hwang-ja: 'son of an Emperor', i.e. Prince. Hwang-nyo: 'daughter of an Emperor', i.e. Princess. Hwang-je: Emperor. Hwang-kwibi: 'Imperial noble lady', the highest rank of concubine, a rank which entitled her sons to succeed to the throne. Hwang-se-je: 'Imperial Brother Heir', i.e. Heir Presumptive.
Hwang T'ae-ja: 'Great Imperial Son', i.e. Heir Apparent or Crown Prince. Hwang-yongpo: the Emperor's yellow official robes. Hyon-bin: wife of a Prince of the fourth rank. Hyon-ju: Princess (of the fourth rank), daughter of a Crown Prince, by a junior wife. Hyung-bae: square emblematic insignia worn by nobles and courtiers. In-jongjon: 'Hall of Benevolent Rule', the throne room at the Ch'angduk Palace. Jae: mansion. Jobok: official court attire worn by officials above the third rank. Jon: hall. Jong-myo: Royal ancestral shrine. Juck-suk: the King's red silk ceremonial shoes. Juhg-ui: official court robes worn by the Queen Kam-gun: Princess. Kisaeng: entertainment woman. Konch'ong-gung: 'Palace of Cloudless Heaven'. Kong-ju: Princess, the style conferred on a daughter of a King, born of a Queen, at her marriage.
Kyonghui-kung: 'Palace of Blissful Brilliance'.
Kun-ju: Princess, daughter of a Crown Prince, by the Crown Princess. Kung (or gung): palace. Kung-naebu: Royal Household Department. Kung-nyo: 'palace girl', i.e. a maidservant at the palace. Kunjong-jon: 'Hall of Government Restraint'. Kwanch'alsa: Governor. Kwanghwa-mun: 'Gate of Light'. Kwi-bin: Royal concubine of the first rank.
Kwi-in: 'precious person', i.e. noble lady, the title used as a prefix for the second rank of concubines. Usually, those who had borne a child and received a certificate of status. Kwi-jok: nobles. Kwi-jok-won: Court of Nobles. Kyei-in: Marchioness.
Kyongbok-gung: 'Palace of Shining Happiness'. Kyongun-gung: 'Palace of Good Fortune'. mun: gate. Myun-bok: King's ceremonial robe with nine symbols. Myun-yugwan: ceremonial motarboard hat with coloured beads, back and front, indicating rank: twelve for the Emperor, nine for the King, seven for the Heir Apparent, five for his son, three for officials. Nakson-jae: 'Mansion of Joy and Goodness'.
nain: personal maid, a term applied to newly hired feamale servant at the King's palace. nang: 'gentleman', a title usually bestowed on officials holding court rank 5 or, below. Okhoru: 'Pavilion of the Jade Urn'. On-in: Countess.
Ong-ju: Princess 1) the style conferred on a daughter of a King, born of a lesser wife or concubine, at her marriage or 2) the wife of a younger son of a King of the rank of Gun. Pi-chonha: 'Highness'. P'unggyung Kung: 'Palace of Plenty and Happiness', the western palace in Seoul. Pu-pu-in: Princess, the title conferred on the consort of a Grand Prince (T'ae-gun) or, on the mother of a Queen. Pu T'ae-pu-in: Princess Consort, the title of the consort of a Grand Prince of the Court (T'ae-won-gun).
Pu-won-gun: Prince, the usual title conferred on the father of a Queen. Sanggam-mama: 'highest one', a reference to the King in courtly language. Sanggung: 'court lady', a supervisor amongst the female palace servants. Ship-eejang-bok: Emperor's ceremonial robe with twelve symbols. A dragon for majesty; mountain peaks for peace and stability; flames for one of five elements; pheasants for beauty; sacrificial wine cups for filial piety; millet grains or rice for plenty; axes for decisiveness and judgement; clouds for rain and dew for human benefit; key frets for devotion and the forces of good and evil; bullocho for longevity; fylfot for discrimination or a myriad cheers; and the sun and moon for primary elements. Sijong'won-gyong: Lord Chamberlain. Sin-in: Duchess. Soban: 'western section', i.e. the military nobility. ssi: clan. Sugun T'ongjesa: Lord High Admiral. Suk-bin: Royal concubine of the first rank.
Sung-sup-gun: 'Hereditary Prince', a prince whose title was inherited from his father or grandfather. Syun-in: Baroness.
T'ae: great, or grand. T'ae-bi: Great Queen, i.e. Queen Dowager.
T'ae-bi-mama: used as an equivalent to 'Her Majesty'. T'ae-bin: Grand Princess Consort. T'ae-bu: 'great man', a title conferred on senior scholar officials and nobles holding court ranks 1to 4, or military officials of ranks 1 and 2. A suffix to the attributive prefix was loosely associated with the grade. Those of the first grade would have -nok or -dok, as in Songnok T'ae-bu for sons-in-law or Hyol-lok T'ae-bu for royal relations. T'ae-guk: the yin-yang symbol representing Confucian balance, harmony and dualism in the cosmos. Used as the national crest and on the national flag. T'ae-gun: 'Grand Prince', the princely title enjoyed by sons of a Queen. T'ae-han Che-guk: 'The Great Han Empire', the official name for Korea after independence from China in 1897 and before the Japanese annexation in 1910. T'ae-han-mun: 'The Great Gate', the main entrance to the Toksu Palace. T'ae-ja: 'Great Son', i.e. Heir Apparent.
T'ae-sin: Minister of State, Chancellor. T'ae Syang Wang: 'Great High King', a title bestowed on a King who had abdicated sovereign power.
T'ae-wang: 'Great King', the usual style conferred on a King after his death. T'ae-wang T'ae-bi: 'Senior Great Queen Regent', the title of a Queen Dowager when serving as the most senior regent. T'ae-won-gun: 'Prince of the Great Court', or Grand Prince Regent, the usual title enjoyed by the natural father of a King, if the latter was the adopted successor to a childless King. Tojang: seal. Toksu-kung: 'Palace of Virtuous Longevity'. Tongban: 'eastern section', i.e. the civil nobility. Tong-gung-mama: 'eastern palace', a reference to the Heir Apparent in courtly language. Uigwan: Privy Councillor. Uijong: State Councillor of the Right. Uijong-bu: State Council. Unhyon-kung: 'Cloud Pass Palace'. Wang: King, the usual title used by the sovereign during his reign. Wang T'ae-bi: 'Great Queen Regent', the title of a Queen Dowager when serving as regent.
Wang-bi: Queen, the usual title used by the principal wife of the sovereign during his reign. Wang-gung: Royal Palace. Wang-hu: Queen, the usual title conferred on the principal wife of a King, after her death. Wang-ja: 'son of the King', prince. Wang-nyo: 'daughter of the King', princess. Wang-se-ja: Crown Prince. Wang-se-ja-bin: Crown Princess.
Wang-se-son: 'heir in succession to the Crown Prince', i.e. Heir Presumptive, Wang-son: Prince, grandson of a King, descended in the male line from a junior wife. Won: court, garden. Won-ja: 'primary prince', the title of the first born son of a Queen. Wongu-dan: Alter of Heaven.
Wonyugwan: ceremonial headgear worn at court. Yangban: nobility, supposedly descendants of the Sila, Paikje and Koryo dynasties and the families of their principal Ministers of State. Yi: 'plum', the dynastic name of the Imperial family. Yong: dragon, the symbol representing majesty and supernatural power: five claws for the Emperor, four claws for the Heir Apparent, three claws for the Imperial grandson. Yong-bo: embroidered four clawed dragon motif in gold thread on the Royal emblematic medallion. Yong-po: the King or Emperor's dragon robe. Yong-sa: Lord President of the Supreme Council. Yong-uijong: Chief State Councillor.