KOREA

The Yi Dynasty

SELECT GLOSSARY:
bi: consort, the suffix used for the senior wives of the King.
bin: concubine, the suffix used in the titles of the second highest rank of the King's wives, usually those who had born a child by him.
Bo: Imperial emblematic circular medallion, usually containing the five-clawed dragon.
Bu-won-gun: Prince, title enjoyed by the King's father-in-law and honoured Ministers of the first rank.
Ch'angduk-gung
: 'Palace of Illustrious Virtue'.
Ch'anggyong-won: 'Garden of Bright Rejoicing'.
Changniwon-gyong
: Master of Ceremonies.
Chaui T'ae-bi: Great Dowager Queen.
Ch'in-hwang
: 'Prince Imperial', or Prince with the style of His Imperial Highness.
Cho-ha: His or Her Royal Highness
Chog-wang-son: Prince, grandson of a King, descended in the male line from a Queen.
Chon-ho: His or Her Majesty.
Chongil-p'um
: 'first grade senior', the highest court rank or grade.
Chonggu-p'um: 'ninth grade junior', the lowest court rank or grade.
Chong-jon-mama: 'central palace', a reference to the Queen, in courtly language.
Chong-myo: the Royal Ancestral Shrine.
Chu Sang-tyen-ha: Royal style equivalent to His Majesty.
dang
: building or apartment, used as a suffix to the titles of a concubine who had children by the King. The main part of her title being the name of the building in which her eldest child was born.
Dong-dae-mun: 'Eastern Gate'.
Geum-gwan: gold and horsehair headgear worn by nobles and courtiers.
Geum-su-ojo-yong-bo: embroidered five clawed dragon motif, in gold thread on the Imperial emblematic medallion with a border of twenty-four scallops.
Geunjung-jon: 'Audience Hall'.
Gujang-bok: Royal ceremonial robes.
Gun: sons of the King's secondary wives; eldest sons and eldest grandsons of taegun, borne by principal wives; all sons of a Crown Prince; and meritorious subjects of the first and second class.
Gun-chom-wi: Prince Consort, son-in-law of a Crown Prince, husband of a Hyon-ju.
Gun-pu-in
: the title of the consort of a Prince (Gun).
Gun-pu-wi
: Prince Consort, son-in-law of a Crown Prince, husband of a Kun-ju.
Gun-wi
: Prince Consort, son-in-law of a King, husband of a Kong-ju or Ong-ju.
Hamnyong-jon
: 'Hall of Peace'.
Han'gul: the simple phonetic alphabet invented by King Se-jong in the fifteenth century.
Hong-yongpo: the King's red official robes.
Hu-gung: a general term for a concubine or secondary wife.
Husu: embroidered insignia of office worn as an apron, at the back of court attire.
Hwang
: Imperial, yellow (hence, Imperial colour).
Hwang-hu: 'wife of the Emperor', Empress.
Hwang-ja: 'son of an Emperor', i.e. Prince.
Hwang-nyo: 'daughter of an Emperor', i.e. Princess.
Hwang-je: Emperor.
Hwang-kwibi: 'Imperial noble lady', the highest rank of concubine, a rank which entitled her sons to succeed to the throne.
Hwang-se-je: 'Imperial Brother Heir', i.e. Heir Presumptive.
Hwang T'ae-ja
: 'Great Imperial Son', i.e. Heir Apparent or Crown Prince.
Hwang-yongpo: the Emperor's yellow official robes.
Hyon-bin: wife of a Prince of the fourth rank.
Hyon-ju: Princess (of the fourth rank), daughter of a Crown Prince, by a junior wife.
Hyung-bae: square emblematic insignia worn by nobles and courtiers.
In-jongjon: 'Hall of Benevolent Rule', the throne room at the Ch'angduk Palace.
Jae: mansion.
Jobok: official court attire worn by officials above the third rank.
Jon: hall.
Jong-myo: Royal ancestral shrine.
Juck-suk: the King's red silk ceremonial shoes.
Juhg-ui: official court robes worn by the Queen
Kam-gun: Princess.
Kisaeng: entertainment woman.
Konch'ong-gung: 'Palace of Cloudless Heaven'.
Kong-ju: Princess, the style conferred on a daughter of a King, born of a Queen, at her marriage.
Kyonghui-kung
: 'Palace of Blissful Brilliance'.
Kun-ju
: Princess, daughter of a Crown Prince, by the Crown Princess.
Kung (or gung): palace.
Kung-naebu: Royal Household Department.
Kung-nyo: 'palace girl', i.e. a maidservant at the palace.
Kunjong-jon: 'Hall of Government Restraint'.
Kwanch'alsa: Governor.
Kwanghwa-mun: 'Gate of Light'.
Kwi-bin: Royal concubine of the first rank.
Kwi-in
: 'precious person', i.e. noble lady, the title used as a prefix for the second rank of concubines. Usually, those who had borne a child and received a certificate of status.
Kwi-jok: nobles.
Kwi-jok-won: Court of Nobles.
Kyei-in: Marchioness.
Kyongbok-gung
: 'Palace of Shining Happiness'.
Kyongun-gung: 'Palace of Good Fortune'.
mun: gate.
Myun-bok: King's ceremonial robe with nine symbols.
Myun-yugwan: ceremonial motarboard hat with coloured beads, back and front, indicating rank: twelve for the Emperor, nine for the King, seven for the Heir Apparent, five for his son, three for officials.
Nakson-jae: 'Mansion of Joy and Goodness'.
nain
: personal maid, a term applied to newly hired feamale servant at the King's palace.
nang: 'gentleman', a title usually bestowed on officials holding court rank 5 or, below.
Okhoru: 'Pavilion of the Jade Urn'.
On-in: Countess.
Ong-ju
: Princess 1) the style conferred on a daughter of a King, born of a lesser wife or concubine, at her marriage or 2) the wife of a younger son of a King of the rank of Gun.
Pi-chonha: 'Highness'.
P'unggyung Kung: 'Palace of Plenty and Happiness', the western palace in Seoul.
Pu-pu-in: Princess, the title conferred on the consort of a Grand Prince (T'ae-gun) or, on the mother of a Queen.
Pu T'ae-pu-in: Princess Consort, the title of the consort of a Grand Prince of the Court (T'ae-won-gun).
Pu-won-gun
: Prince, the usual title conferred on the father of a Queen.
Sanggam-mama: 'highest one', a reference to the King in courtly language.
Sanggung: 'court lady', a supervisor amongst the female palace servants.
Ship-eejang-bok: Emperor's ceremonial robe with twelve symbols. A dragon for majesty; mountain peaks for peace and stability; flames for one of five elements; pheasants for beauty; sacrificial wine cups for filial piety; millet grains or rice for plenty; axes for decisiveness and judgement; clouds for rain and dew for human benefit; key frets for devotion and the forces of good and evil; bullocho for longevity; fylfot for discrimination or a myriad cheers; and the sun and moon for primary elements.
Sijong'won-gyong: Lord Chamberlain.
Sin-in: Duchess.
Soban: 'western section', i.e. the military nobility.
ssi: clan.
Sugun T'ongjesa: Lord High Admiral.
Suk-bin: Royal concubine of the first rank.
Sung-sup-gun
: 'Hereditary Prince', a prince whose title was inherited from his father or grandfather.
Syun-in: Baroness.
T'ae
: great, or grand.
T'ae-bi: Great Queen, i.e. Queen Dowager.
T'ae-bi-mama
: used as an equivalent to 'Her Majesty'.
T'ae-bin: Grand Princess Consort.
T'ae-bu: 'great man', a title conferred on senior scholar officials and nobles holding court ranks 1to 4, or military officials of ranks 1 and 2. A suffix to the attributive prefix was loosely associated with the grade. Those of the first grade would have -nok or -dok, as in Songnok T'ae-bu for sons-in-law or Hyol-lok T'ae-bu for royal relations.
T'ae-guk: the yin-yang symbol representing Confucian balance, harmony and dualism in the cosmos. Used as the national crest and on the national flag.
T'ae-gun: 'Grand Prince', the princely title enjoyed by sons of a Queen.
T'ae-han Che-guk: 'The Great Han Empire', the official name for Korea after independence from China in 1897 and before the Japanese annexation in 1910.
T'ae-han-mun: 'The Great Gate', the main entrance to the Toksu Palace.
T'ae-ja: 'Great Son', i.e. Heir Apparent.
T'ae-sin
: Minister of State, Chancellor.
T'ae Syang Wang: 'Great High King', a title bestowed on a King who had abdicated sovereign power.
T'ae-wang
: 'Great King', the usual style conferred on a King after his death.
T'ae-wang T'ae-bi: 'Senior Great Queen Regent', the title of a Queen Dowager when serving as the most senior regent.
T'ae-won-gun: 'Prince of the Great Court', or Grand Prince Regent, the usual title enjoyed by the natural father of a King, if the latter was the adopted successor to a childless King.
Tojang: seal.
Toksu-kung: 'Palace of Virtuous Longevity'.
Tongban: 'eastern section', i.e. the civil nobility.
Tong-gung-mama: 'eastern palace', a reference to the Heir Apparent in courtly language.
Uigwan: Privy Councillor.
Uijong: State Councillor of the Right.
Uijong-bu: State Council.
Unhyon-kung: 'Cloud Pass Palace'.
Wang: King, the usual title used by the sovereign during his reign.
Wang T'ae-bi: 'Great Queen Regent', the title of a Queen Dowager when serving as regent.
Wang-bi
: Queen, the usual title used by the principal wife of the sovereign during his reign.
Wang-gung: Royal Palace.
Wang-hu: Queen, the usual title conferred on the principal wife of a King, after her death.
Wang-ja: 'son of the King', prince.
Wang-nyo: 'daughter of the King', princess.
Wang-se-ja: Crown Prince.
Wang-se-ja-bin: Crown Princess.
Wang-se-son
: 'heir in succession to the Crown Prince', i.e. Heir Presumptive,
Wang-son: Prince, grandson of a King, descended in the male line from a junior wife.
Won: court, garden.
Won-ja: 'primary prince', the title of the first born son of a Queen.
Wongu-dan: Alter of Heaven.
Wonyugwan
: ceremonial headgear worn at court.
Yangban: nobility, supposedly descendants of the Sila, Paikje and Koryo dynasties and the families of their principal Ministers of State.
Yi: 'plum', the dynastic name of the Imperial family.
Yong: dragon, the symbol representing majesty and supernatural power: five claws for the Emperor, four claws for the Heir Apparent, three claws for the Imperial grandson.
Yong-bo: embroidered four clawed dragon motif in gold thread on the Royal emblematic medallion.
Yong-po: the King or Emperor's dragon robe.
Yong-sa: Lord President of the Supreme Council.
Yong-uijong: Chief State Councillor.
 
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CopyrightęChristopher Buyers, August 2000 - July 2008