1908-1916 and 1916-1924 Al Munquiz Al ‘Azam H.M. Hussein ibn ‘Ali, Caliph al-Islam, King of the Hijaz, Commander of the Faithful, Grand Sharif and Amir of Mecca, GCB (c 11.3.1920). b. at Mecca, 1854, eldest son of Sharif ‘Ali bin Muhammad, by his wife, Salha, educ. privately at Istanbul. Mbr Turkish Council of State 1893-1908. Appointed by the Sultan of Turkey as Grand Sharif and Amirof Mecca 1st November 1908. Proclaimed the Arab Revolt at Mecca, Taif, Jeddah and other towns 10th June 1916. Deposed as Grand Sharif and Amir by the Sultan of Turkey 1st July 1916. Proclaimed the independence of the Arabs 29th October 1916. Proclaimed at the Holy Mosque, Mecca as Malik al-Bilad al-’Arabiyya and Amir al-Mumenin (King of the Arabs and Commander of the Faithful)and assumed the style of His Majesty, 2nd November 1916. Recognised by the allied powers only as King of the Hijaz, Commander of the Faithful, Grand Sharif and Amir of Mecca, 6th November 1916 (confirmed publicly 3rd January 1917). Founded the Orders of the Renaissance in 1917 and Independence in 1921. Proclaimed as Caliph al-Islam, 7th March 1924. Abdicated the temporal crown in favour of his eldest son, 3rd October 1924. Rcvd: the Collar of the Order of Muhammad ‘Ali of Egypt, and GC of the Orders of the Legion of Honour of France, and Leopold of Belgium, the Imperial Orders of Glory (Atiq Nishan-i-Iftikhar) 1st class (29.10.1908), the Osmans (Nishan-i-Osmanieh) 1st class and Nobility (Nishan-i-Majidieh)1st class of Turkey, and the Great Imtiyaz Medals in gold and silver of Turkey. m. (first) at Mecca, 1879, Sharifa Abidiya Khanum (d. at Istanbul, Turkey, 1888, bur. there), eldest daughter of his paternal uncle, H.H. Amir ‘Abdu’llah Kamil Pasha, Grand Sharif of Mecca. m. (second) Madiha Khanum, a Circassian. m. (third) at Mecca, 1882, Sharifa Khadija Khanum (b. 1866; d. at Amman, Transjordan, 4th July 1921), daughter of daughter of H.H. Amir ‘Abdu’llah Kamil Pasha, Grand Sharif of Mecca. m. (fourth) at Istanbul, Turkey, 1895, H.M. Queen Adila Khanum (b. at Istanbul, Turkey, 1879; d. at Larnaca, Cyprus, 12th July 1929, bur. there at the Hala Sultan (Umm Haram) Tekke), daughter of Salah Bey, a Circassian, and grand-daughter of H.H. Mustafa Rashid Pasha, sometime Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. He d. at Amman, Jordan, 4th June 1931 (bur. outside the western wall of the Haram as-Sharif, Jerusalem), having had issue five sons and three daughters:
1) H.M. ‘Ali ibn Hussein, King of the Hijaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca (s/o Abdiya) – see below.
1) H.R.H. Princess Saliha. b. at Stinia Palace, Yenikoy, Bosphorus, Turkey, before 1898 (d/o Madiha). m. ‘Abdu’llah bin Muhammad Pasha (d. before May 1975). She d. after May 1975.
2) H.R.H. Princess Fatima. b. at Stinia Palace, Yenikoy, Bosphorus, Turkey, 18xx (d/o Abdiya). m. a European. She d. before May 1975.
3) H.R.H. Princess Sara. b. at Stinia Palace, Yenikoy, Bosphorus, Turkey, 1898 (d/o Adila). m. at Istanbul, Turkey, 9th September 1933 (div.), H.E. Sayyid Muhammad Atta Amin Bey, CVO (20.6.1933) (b. at Baghdad, Iraq, 15th December 1897), Sec Royal Diwan 1922-1925, actg Diplomatic Agent for Iraq in London 1925-1932, First Sec London 1932-1933, Dir-Gen. of Foreign Affairs 1933-1934, First Sec. Rome 1934-1935, Counsellor London 1935-1938 and 1939-1940, chargé d’affaires Paris 1938-1939, Berlin 1939-1940 and London 1940-1943, Envoy Ext and Minister Plen to Turkey 1944-1949, and France 1949-1952 (conc to Spain 1950-1952), rcvd: the Order of the Two Rivers 1st class, son of H.E. Muhammad Atta Pasha, sometime Governor of Iskanderum. She d. before May 1975.
1924 - 1925 H.M. ‘Ali ibn Hussein, King of the Hijaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca, GBE (m11.3.1920). b. at Mecca, 1879, eldest son of H.M. Hussein ibn ‘Ali, Caliph al-Islam, King of the Hijaz, Commander of the Faithful, Grand Sharif and Amir of Mecca, GCB, by his first wife, Sharifa Abidiya Khanum, eldest daughter of H.H. Amir ‘Abdu’llah Kamil Pasha, Grand Sharif of Mecca, educ. at Ghalata Serai Coll, Istanbul, Turkey. He joined his father in the Arab Revolt against Turkish rule and served as C-in-C of the Harb Army 1915-1916, C-in-C Arab Southern Army 1916-1919, Grand Vizier of the Hijaz 1916-1924, and C-in-C Hijaz Arab Army 1919-1924. Appointed as Amir of Medina 1918. Proclaimed as King of the Hijaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca, at Medina and Mecca, following the abdication of his father, 3rd October 1924. Forced to abdicate when the forces of ‘Ibn Saud’ overran the Hijaz, 19th December 1925. Went into exile in Iraq and later Transjordan. Served as Regent of Transjordan during the absence of his younger brother, King ‘Abdu’llah, on several occasions when the latter went out of his realm. Rcvd: GC of the Orders of the Renaissance (1917) and Independence (1921), the Ma’an Medal (1918), and Medal of Independence (1921) of the Hijaz, the Grand Order of the Hashimites (1932), and the Orders of Faisal I (1933), and the Two Rivers 1st class of Iraq (1922), GC of the Order of Leopold of Belgium (15.3.1930), etc. m. at Yenikoy, Bosphorus, Turkey, 1906, as his only wife, H.M. Queen Nafissa Khanum (b. at Istanbul, Turkey, 1886; k. by the military plotters outside the Qasr al-Rihab, Baghdad, Iraq, 14th July 1958), second daughter of H.H. Amir ‘Abdu’l-Ilah bin Muhammad Pasha, Grand Sharif and Amir of Mecca. He d. at Baghdad, Iraq, 13th February 1935 (bur. Royal Mausoleum, Adhamiyah), having had issue, one son and four daughters:
1) Field Marshal H.R.H. Crown Prince ‘Abdu’l Ilah, GCB (c 16.7.1956), GCMG (6.5.1942), GCVO (10.11.1943). b. at Taif, Arabia, 14th November 1913, educ. Victoria Coll, Alexandria, Egypt. Appointed as Regent of Iraq for his nephew, King Feisal II, following the death of his father, 6th April 1939. Deposed in a coup d’etat by Rashid ‘Ali al-Gaylani, 10th April 1941. Returned to Iraq and resumed his authority over the country, 24th May 1941. Appointed as Heir Apparent with the title of Wali al-Ahd, 10th November 1943. Became Head of the Hashimite Royal House on the death of King ‘Abdu’llah I of Jordan, 20th July 1951. The regency was terminated when King Feisal II came of age and assumed full ruling powers, 2nd May 1953. Attended the Victory celebrations in London in 1946 and the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II 1953. Field Marshal Royal Iraqi Army and Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force 6/4/1939. Hon Air Cdre RAF 19/8/1943, prom Hon Air Vice-Marshal 30/9/1952, and Hon Air Marshal 2/5/1955. Rcvd: the Grand Order of the Hashimites, and the Orders of Faisal I and the Two Rivers 1st class, and King Feisal II Installation Medal (1953) of Iraq, Queen Elizabeth II Coron Medal (1953), the Collar of the Order of Hussein ibn ‘Ali (1949), and GC of the Orders of the Renaissance (special class) and Independence of Jordan, GC of the Orders of the Orders of Polonia Restituta of Poland (27.11.1943), Propitious Clouds of China (special grade) (1945), Legion of Honour of France (1947), Leopold of Belgium (1947), Pahlavi of Iran (14.6.1949), Military Merit of Spain (8.5.1952), the Netherlands Lion (25.4.1953), Muhammadiya of Morocco (25.5.1956), and the Chrysanthemum of Japan (8.11.1957), Chief Cdr of the Legion of Merit of the USA (1.6.1945), and the King Abdu’l-Aziz Decoration 1st class of Saudi Arabia (2.12.1957). Hon LLD (McGill Univ). m. (first) at Baghdad, November 1936 (div. there, August 1940) Melek Khanum (b. in Egypt), styled PrincessMelek ‘Abdu’l Ilah with the style of Her Royal Highness November 1936 to August 1940, daughter of (Sahib ul-Izza) Salah al-Din Fauzi Bey, and a grand niece of H.E. Amin Yehia Pasha. m. (second) at the Royal Palace, Baghdad, 28th October 1948 (div. 28th November 1950), Faiza Khanum (b. 1926), styled Princess Faiza ‘Abdu’l Ilah with the style of Her Royal Highness 28th October 1948 to 28th November 1950, daughter of Brigadier (Sahib ul-Izza) Kamal al-Tarabulsi Bey, sometime Governor of Bohera in Egypt. m. (third) at Baghdad, 24th June 1956, H.R.H. Princess Hiyam ‘Abdu’l Ilah (b. 1933; m. second, …, a cousin, and d. at Amman, Jordan, ca. 1999, having had issue two children by her second husband), daughter of H.E. Shaikh al-’Umara Muhammad al-Habib, Amir of the Rabia Tribes of Kut and Senator of the Kingdom. He was k. (s.p.) by the military plotters outside the Qasr al-Rihab, Baghdad, Iraq, 14th July 1958.
1) H.R.H. Princess Khadija Abdiya. b. at Stinia Palace, Yenikoy, Bosphorus, Turkey, 1907, educ. privately. She was k. unm. by the military plotters outside the Rihab Palace, Baghdad, Iraq, 14th July 1958 (alongside her six year old ward, Ghaziya).
3) H.R.H. Princess Badia. b. at Damascus, Syria, 8th May 1920, educ. privately. Served in the First Arab-Israeli War 1949 as a nurse volunteer with the Red Crescent Org. m. at Baghdad, Iraq, 1949, H.H. Al-Sharif Al-Hussein bin ‘Ali Bey (b. 30th September 1918; d. at London, 1st July 1998), second son of H.H. Amir ‘Ali Pasha, Grand Sharif and Amir of Mecca. She d. at London, 9th May 2020, having had issue, three sons – see above.
4) H.R.H. Princess Jalila. b. at Mecca, 1923, educ. privately. m. Sharif Dr Ahmad Hazim Bey, eldest son of Sharif Salim Pasha. She d.s.p. in hospital at Baghdad, Iraq, from burns received from an exploding paraffin stove, 28th December 1955 (bur. Royal Mausoleum, Adhamiyah) – see above.