The Timurid Dynasty


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1556 - 1605  H.M. Al-Sultan al-‘Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-‘Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Mu’minin, Khalifat ul-Muta’ali Abu’l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar I Sahib-i-Zaman, Padshah Ghazi Zillu’llah [‘Arsh-Ashyani], Emperor of India. b. at the Fort of Umarkot, Sind, 23rd November 1542, and named Badr ud-din Muhammad Akbar (his birthdate was officially changed to 15th October and he was renamed Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar), second son of H.M. Al-Sultan al-‘Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Jam-i-Sultanat-i-haqiqi wa Majazi, Sayyid al-Salatin, Abu’l Muzaffar Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun II Padshah Ghazi, Zillu’llah, Emperor of India, by his wife, Hamida Banu Begum Sahiba, daughter of Shaikh ‘Ali Akbar Jami [Mir Baba Dost], illiterate. Subadar of Ghazni 1551-1555, and Lahore 1555-1556. Appointed as Heir Apparent by his father, June 1555. Succeeded on the death of his father, 27th January 1556 o.s. Proclaimed as Emperor by his guardian, Bairam Khan, and ascended the musnaid at the Takht-i-Akbari, in the Imperial Camp near Kalanaur, Gurdaspur, Punjab, 14th February 1556. At his accession the Mughal power extended over Delhi, Agra, parts of the Punjab, Kabul and Kandahar, but was challenged on all fronts. Delhi and Agra were lost almost immediately, but Akbar soon consolidated his position at the Second Battle of Panipat, where he defeated Muhammad Adil Shah and his Chief Minister Hemchandra (Hemu), 5th November 1556. He then established control over Bihar and Bengal, and went on to conquer Gondwana 1564, Chttor 1567, Gujarat 1573, Kabul 1581, Kashmir 1586, Sind 1591, Baluchisthan, Kandahar 1595, and Ahmednagar 1597. Marriage alliances and the family relationships established through them, ensured the loyalty of the most influential Rajput princes. Prorogued the ‘Ibadat Khana’ or Council of Religion to examine the advantages and drawbacks of all religions, 1575. As a result of these deliberations he established his own religion, known as ‘Din-i-Ilahi’, which drew its principals of universal peace and tolerance from several different existing religions. Despite his own illiteracy, he became a great patron of the arts, learning and scholarship, ammassed a large library from which he received daily readings and then discussed religion and literature with them. m. (first) at Ghazni, 1552, his cousin, Shahzadi Ruqiya Sultan Begum Sahiba (b. 1542; d.s.p. at Agra, 5th February1626 n.s. (bur. Kabul), daughter of his paternal uncle, Shahzada ‘Abu Nasir Muhammad Hindal Mirza. m. (second) 1556, a daughter of Jamal Khan, of Mewat. m. (third) at Mankot, 1557, a daughter of ‘Abdu’llah Khan Mughal. m. (fourth) before 11th September 1561 o.s., Salima Sultan Begum Sahiba (b. 23rd February 1539; d. at Delhi, 27th December 1612 n.s. (bur. in the Mandarkar Garden, Agra), widow of Waqil us-Sultanat, Yar Wafadar, Baradur Neku-siyar, Farzand-i-Sa’adatmand, Nawab Bairam Khan Bahadur, Khan-i-Khanan [Khan Baba], sometime Vicegerent of the Empire, and daughter of Khwaja Nur ud-din Muhammad Mirza [Sayyid Amir], by his wife, Shahzadi Gul Barg Begum Sahiba, daughter of Al-Sultan al-‘Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Zahir ud-din Muhammad Jalal ud-din Babur Padshah Ghazi, Emperor of India. m. (fifth) at Sambhar, 6th February 1562, Wali Nimat, Hamida Banu Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba (d. at Agram, 19th May 1623 n.s., bur. Rauza Mariam, Sikandara), née Rajkumari Hira Kunwari Sahiba, alias Harkha Bai, eldest daughter of Raja Bihari Mal, Raja of Amber. m. (sixth) at Nagaur, 1562, Maharajkumari Shri Nathi Bai Sahiba, daughter of Maharajadhiraj Parama Bhattarak Shri Maharawal Ji Bairi Hariraj Singh Dev Bahadur, Yadukul Chandrawhal, Bijaimand, Maharaja of Jaisalmer. m. (seventh) before 21st August 1563 n.s., the former wife of ‘Abdu’l-Wasi. m. (eighth) near Mandu, September 1564, a daughter of Miran Mubaraq Shah Faruqi II, King of Khandesh. m. (ninth) a daughter of Fadan Khan. m. (tenth) 1569, a daughter of Sultan Muhammad Nasir ud-din Husain Shah [Hosaina Shaha] Ghazi, Sultan of Kashmir. m. (eleventh) 1570 (div.), Sindh Begum Sahiba (d.s.p.), daughter of Mirza Muhammad Baqi Tarkhan of Thatta, Sind. m. (twelfth) at Nagaur, 16th November 1570, Baiji Lal Raj Kanwari Sahiba, daughter of Kunwar Shri Kanho [Kanhaji], of Bikaner, and niece of Rao Shri Kalyan Mal, Rao of Bikaner. m. (thirteenth) at Nagaur, 16th November 1570, Baiji Lal Bhanumati Kanwari Sahiba, daughter of Kanwar Sri Bhim Rajji, Gai Bhum ra Bahru, of Bikaner. m. (fourteenth) ca. 1572, a daughter of Nahar Das Isar Das. m. (fifteenth) 1573, a daughter of Raja Shri Jai Chand, of Nagaur. m. (sixteenth) at Fatehpur Sikri, 1575, Kasima Banu Begum Sahiba, daughter of Arab Shah. m. (seventeenth) 1577, a daughter of Maharawal Shri Askaran Sahib Bahadur, Maharawal of Dungarpur. m. (eighteenth) ca. 1581, Rajkumari Shri Rukmawati Baiji Lall Sahiba [Jodh Bibi] (d.s.p. before 30th May 1623, bur. Bihishtabad Sikandara, near Agra), daughter of Rao Shri Mal Deoji, Rao of Marwar, by his paswan, Tipu. m. (nineteenth) 1581, a daughter of Raja Shri Kesho Das Rathore, of Merta. m. (twentieth) at Lahore, 1594, a daughter of Qazi ‘Isa, of Qazwin. m. (twenty-first) before 1597, a daughter of Nasir Khan. m. (twenty-second) 1597, a daughter of Sri Sri Maharaja Lakshmi Narayan Bhup Bahadur, Raja of Cooch Behar. m. (twenty-third) Gauhar Khanum, a sister of Shaikh Jamal Bakht Bahaduriyar. m. (twenty-fourth) Tara Begum Sahiba, who built the Tara Bagh at Agra. m. (twenty-fifth) Tauti Begum Sahiba, who built the Tota Bagh and Tota ka Tal in Agra. m. (twenty-sixth) a daughter of Hasan Khan of Merta. m. (twenty-seventh?) a maternal niece of Jodhaji Soda, of Nawanagar (d. after 1608). m. (twenty-eighth?) Manbhaoti Begum (a concubine?), who built a garden at Agra. m. (twenty-ninth?) Abdar Begum Sahiba (a concubine?). m. (thirtieth?) Achanak Begum (a concubine?), who built the garden of Achanak Bagh, on the banks of the Jamuna river, at Agra. m. (a) Bibi Pungrai. m. (b) 1564, Bibi Aram Bakhsh. m. (c) Bibi Salima Sultana (d. at Lahore, 23rd May 1599). m. (d) Bibi Khaira. m. (e) Bibi Maryam (d. at Lahore, 1596). m. (f) Bibi Daulat Shad. m. (g) Bibi Naun. m. (h) at Srinagar, October 1592, a daughter of Shams Chak, of Kashmir.(Emperor Akbar. m. 12 Rajput princesses in total). He d. from the effects of slow poisoning, at the Daulatkhana, Fathabad (Fatehpur Sikri), Akbarabad (Agra), 27th October 1605 n.s. (bur. Bihishtabad Sikandara, near Agra), having had issue, six sons and seven daughters:
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