PERAK

BRIEF HISTORY

The history of the state of Perak (Negeri Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan) begins in 1528 with the installation of Sultan Muzaffar Shah I, a descendent of Sultan Mahmud Shah of Malacca. The dynasty is thus directly descended from the old ruling house of Malacca. The lucky start to the dynasty's history did not last long as the the country was soon prey to competing Empires, Aceh, Bugis, Portuguese, Dutch, Siamese and eventually British. On two occasions, the Sultan and Royal family were carried off to Aceh, in Sumatra. The discovery of the richest tin deposits in the world in 1824 drew in a huge influx of immigrants, particularly Chinese. Coupled with complicated rules of succession to the Sultanate and powerful territorial nobles, a degree of social and political turmoil was inevitable. British intervention in 1874 brought about a semblance of compromise, when the then ruling Sultan (a usurpur) was induced to abdicate in favour of the rightful heir, in return for a pension. A British Resident came to advise the Sultan and an Indian recruited military police force was established. However, the new Resident did not prove popular and was assassinated in 1875. Unfortunately, the newly installed Sultan had been implicated in the affair, so found himself deposed and exiled to the Seychelles. A regent was appointed in his stead, and eventually allowed to become Sultan, ten years later. He died within a month of his new sovereign status. His successor, Sultan Idris, proved to be one of the wisest and forward thinking Malays of his generation. The state greatly prospered and developed under his benign rule, finances were brought under control, and the first steps towards federation taken. Perak was one of the first states to form the Federated Malay States in 1897.  However, the state suffered a great deal from the slump in rubber prices, following the end of Great War. Although Idris died in 1916, his successors proved to be equally advanced in their views. Sultan Alang Iskandar Shah, had served in the FMS police and took a leading part in the establishment of the Royal Malay Regiment in the 1930s. Perak was invaded and conquered by the Japanese on New Year's Day 1942. Fortunately perhaps, Sultan Abdulazziz, was not one of the rulers deposed by them. The state joined the federation on 1st February 1948. It joined the other states of the peninsular to form the independent Federation of Malaya on 31st August 1957, and became a state of Malaysia on 16th September 1963.

SALUTE:
17-guns.

STYLES & TITLES:
The ruling prince: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Maulana Paduka Sri Tuanku dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, i.e. Sultan and Head of the State of Perak, with the style of His Royal Highness.
The principal Royal consort of the ruling prince: Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Perempuan, with the style of Her Royal Highness.
The principal non-Royal consort of the ruling prince: Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Permusairi, with the style of Her Royal Highness.
The Heir Apparent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Muda, Wakil us-Sultan, Wazir ul-Azam Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, i.e. the Heir Apparent of Perak, with the style of His Highness.
The Royal consort of the Heir Apparent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Puan Besar Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, with the style of Her Highness.
The non-Royal consort of the Heir Apparent: Yang Teramat Mulia Cik Puan Besar, previously Raja Dewa Nata.
The Heir Presumptive: Duli Yang Amat Mulia Raja di-Hiler.
The Royal consort of the Heir Presumptive: Duli Yang Amat Mulia Raja Puan Muda, with the style of His Highness.
The non-Royal consort of the Heir Presumptive: Yang Amat Mulia Cik Puan Muda, previously Raja Dewa Nata.
The Regent: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Pemangku Raja Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan, i.e. the Prince Regent of Perak, with the style of His Highness.
The junior wives of the ruling prince, the Heir Apparent and other princes: Yang Mulia Cik (personal name) binti (father's title and name).
Other male members of the Royal family, descended in the male line: Yang Mulia Raja (personal name) bin Raja (father's name).
Other female members of the Royal family, descended in the male line: Yang Mulia Raja (personal name) binti Raja (father's name).

Princely titles - see below under Rules of Succession.

NOBILITY:
The nobility consists of a number of territorial and personal titles, the former conferred for life on individuals belonging to the same family, but not necessarily on the eldest son of the former title holder. The most important of these titles are:
1) Yang Amat Berhomat Orang Kaya Bendahara Sri Maharaja.
2) Yang Amat Berhomat Orang Kaya Besar Maharaja di-Raja.
3) Yang Amat Berhomat Orang Kaya Temenggong Paduka Raja.
4) Yang Amat Berhomat Orang Kaya Mentri Paduka Tuan.
5) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Laksamana Raja Mahkota.
6) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Sri Adika Raja Shahbandar Muda.
7) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Panglima Kinta Sri Amar di-Raja.
8) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Panglima Bukit Gantang Sri Amar Bangsa di-Raja.
9) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Shahbandar Paduka Indra.
10) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Setia Bijaya di-Raja.
11) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Imam Paduka Tuan.
12) Yang Berhomat Orang Kaya-kaya Mahakurnia Indra di-Raja.

RULES OF SUCCESSION:
The rules of succession are more complicated than other Malay states. The reigning Sultan appoints princes of the blood (Waris negri) to certain high princely titles for life. They are arranged in a strict order of precedence indicating the order of succession to the throne. The relative precedence of these titles has altered from time to time, and additional titles have been included and removed. However, the current order, as confirmed on 25th February 1953, stands as follows:
1) Duli Yang Teramat Mulia (Tuanku) Raja Muda, Wakil us-Sultan, Wazir ul-Azam Negara Perak Dar ur-Ridzwan.
2) Duli Yang Amat Mulia Raja di-Hiler.
3) Yang Amat Mulia Raja Kechil Besar.
4) Yang Mulia Raja Kechil Sulong.
5) Yang Mulia Raja Kechil Tengah.
6) Yang Mulia Raja Kechil Bongsu.

On the death or promotion of an existing titleholder, the holder of the next most senior title, succeeds. On the death of a reigning Sultan, the prince holding the title of Raja Muda, the senior prince in the hierarchy succeeds him. The prince enjoying the title of Raja di-Hiler, becomes the new Raja Muda. The Raja Kechil Besar, becomes Raja di-Hiler, and so on. The new Sultan may then appoint his own nominee to the junior-most title made vacant by these successions.

ORDERS & DECORATIONS:
See separate link below.


GLOSSARY:

See under Malaysia, main page.

SOURCES:
Buyong bin ‘Adil. Sejarah Alam Melayu. Penggal V (Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan Dan Pahang). Chetakan Yang Pertama. Department of Education, SS & F.M.S., Singapore, 1940.
Charles Umpherston Aitchison. A Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sunnuds, Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries: Bengal, Burmah and the Eastern Archipelago. Foreign and Political Dept, Calcutta, 1862.
The Burney Papers. Vols 1-4. Vajirananan National Library, Bangkok, 1910-1914.
P.L Burns & C.D. Cowan. Sir Frank Swettenham’s Malayan Journals 1874-1876. Oxford University Press, London, 1975.
Amelia Ceridwen. “The Silsilah Raja-Raja Perak I: An Historical and Literary Investigation into the Political Significance of a Malay Court Genealogy”, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Volume LXXIV, Part 2, December 2001, pp. 23-129 Raja Chulan. Misa Melayu. Methodist Publishing House, Singapore, 1919.
Ensiklopedia Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Melayu, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1995. Jhoo Kay Kim. His Majesty Sultan Azlan Shah, Pelanduk Publications, Petaling Jaya, 1992.
Khoo Kay Kim. the Western Malay states 1850-1873: The Effects of Commercial Development on Modern Malay Politics. East Asian Historical Monographs, Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1972.
The Leaders of Malaya and Who‚s Who 1957-1958, J. Victor Morais, Kuala Lumpur, 1958.
Lt. Kol. M.A. Fawzi Basri Madya, AMN, PPT, PJK, Cempaka Sari Sejarah Kesultan Negeri Perak, United Selangor Press Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, 1986.
V.D. Kuppusamy (ed.), A Souvenir of the Installation of H.H. Sir Yussuf Izzudin Shah, KCMG, OBE, as Sultan of Perak. 16th April 1949. Rotary Club, Ipoh, 1949.
Who‚s Who in Malaysia and guide to Singapore, J. Victor Morais, Kuala Lumpur, 1967-1978.
W.E. Maxwell, “The History of Perak from Native Sources”, Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No.14, December 1884, pp.305-321.
R. J. Wilkinson, Papers on Malay Subjects, Part II, Notes of Perak History, FMS Government Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1908.
R. O. Winstedt, and R. J. Wilkinson, A History of Perak, MBRAS Reprints (Reprint Number Three), The Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Kuala Lumpur, 1974.
Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne. Triad Societies: Western Accounts of the History, Sociology and Linguistics of Chinese Secret Societies. Vol. V. Triad and Tabut: A Survey of the Origin and Diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan Secret Societies in the Malay Peninsula, AD 1800-1935. Taylor & Francis, London, 2000.

SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Raja Arif Shah.
Raja K. Aznam bin Raja Omar.
Raja Danel Hizan Shah bin Raja Nazrin Shah.
Raja Shaidatul Manira.
Raja Zamilia Raja Mansur.
Cik Puan Noor Zilawati binti Dato’ Muhammad.
 
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