of Sintang, in West Borneo (Kalimantan) originates in a
union between local Dayak nobles and Javanese settlers.
The progenitor of the family being a certain Aji Melayu,
a Hindu nobleman from Java. His wife, Putri Junjung Bui,
the daughter of a Moyang Dayak chief. Their descendant in
the ninth generation, Assam or Hassan, is supposed to
have adopted Islam and to be the founder of the
principality sometime during the early fourteenth
century. However, this is almost certainly apocryphal not
real given that his grandchildren continued to bear Hindu
names and titles.
The verifiable ancestry of the ruling family seems to
begin with Putri Dara Juanti, the granddaughter of Assam,
and her husband Prabhu Lokendra, a supposed brother of
the Chief Minister of the great Majapahit Empire. Their
descendants laid the foundation of a Malay-Dayak state
composed which secured the allegiance of several
important Dayak tribes and Malay Hindu immigrants. Their
son became a powerful ruler, whose sons became rulers of
other important polities in the region.
The ruling family adopted Islam in the beginning of the
seventeenth century. Javanese culture, state organisation
and titles become more firmly established at this time.
By the end of the century, the dominance of Islam had
become permanent and the state become important enough
for the ruler to adopt the title of Sultan, in common
with Muslim rulers elsewhere.
Little or no contact with the outside world disturbed the
state for the next century and a half. It is only after
sins of increasing British interest in Borneo that the
Dutch began to take an interest in securing control over
the region. They sent a colonial official into the region
in 1822 and secured the first contract with Sultan
Muhammad Qamar ud-din. Within a year they had removed him
from exercising his executive powers and recognised his
son and heir as the effective ruler. Although he
eventually succeeded his father as Sultan according to
the local adat, the precedent had been set and
they removed him in the same way.
Sultan Muhammad Jamal ud-din II being still alive when
his son 'Abdu'l-Rashid was placed in power, the latter
could not assume the title of Sultan. He was
installed as Panembahan Kusuma Negara by the
Dutch, which became the reign title for the rulers
thereafter. Rebellions and insurrections in favour of the
former sultan erupted throughout the late 1850's and
1860's, but were eventually subdued and parts of the
state placed under direct Dutch rule.
The two following rulers reigned until their deaths, but
their next successor, Gusti Adi 'Abdu'l-Majid, blotted
his copybook in the manner of his ancestors. The Dutch
deposed him in 1913 and exiled him with his sons and
family to Bogor on Java. They replaced him with his Dutch
educated cousin, Ade Muhammad Jun, as Wakil Panembahan
(deputy or temporary ruler). By all accounts he was
enlightened and efficient, perhaps one of the best rulers
of his time in Borneo. But his rule was never fully in
accordance with local adat custom and most people
recognised the son of the deposed Panembahan as the best
rightful heir. As a consequence, the Dutch restored the
Royal line when he died in 1934, but only after bypassing
the rightful Heir Apparent in favour of his better
educated and more "suitable" younger brother.
Muhammad Jamal ud-din reigned successfully until the
Japanese occupation. In common with other Borneo rulers
and aristocrats, he came under suspicion of supporting
the allies by the Japanese. They arrested him, together
with his brothers and several other senior officials, all
of whom they subsequently beheaded in the Mandor forest
in June 1944.
Although the Japanese installed the son of the former
Heir Apparent as ruler, this fact alone secured Dutch
animosity against him when they returned in 1945. A
commission of investigation by the Sultan of Pontianak
took local soundings and eventually settled on the eldest
son of the murdered former Panenbahan as the
"rightful heir". Muhammad Shams ud-din was
deposed in 1947 and murdered shortly afterward. Radin
Muhammad Khalidi, minor son of Muhammad Jamal ud-din,
then ascended the throne as "temporary ruler"
under a Council of Administration headed by a distant
cousin. Ade Muhammad Johan, became head of the Swapraja
administration after the Dutch withdrawal in 1950, and
later served as Bupati of Sintang 1954-1958. He continued
as guardian until the abolition of the principality in
Muhammad Khalidi, or more correctly Ismail Shafi ud-din,
continued as Head of the Royal House until his death.
Although no successor has been officially recognised, his
only brother Radin Muhammad Ikhsani Perdana, has served
as unofficial Heir Apparent pending final agreement.
STYLES & TITLES:
The ruling prince: Sri Paduka Tuanku (reign name),
Panembahan Kusuma Negara*.
The principal Royal consort of the ruling Prince: Ratu
Permaisuri or Ratu Panembahan.
The Heir Apparent: Pangeran Ratu (personalised suffix).
The other male members of the dynasty, descended in the
male line: Radin** (personal name).
The female members of the dynasty, descended in the male
* Although it is common to see the use of distinguishing
Roman numerals for rulers, these are not actually used
according to local practice and do not appear on the
seals of the rulers. It should also be noted that Dutch
practice seemed to require the jumbling together of birth
names and titles, together with reign names, in a
scarsely understandable manner. As far as possible, these
have been separated and corrected in these pages.
However, the confusing Dutch practice seems to have taken
root and is often still followed.
**The use of these titles before the given name is a
comparatively recent practice. In former times, the usual
titles at birth were the Dayak titles of Abang
(males) and Dayang (females). Male children
usually received the title of Ade and a Koranic
personal name during adolescence. Those born of Royal
mothers receiving further promotion to the Royal title of
Gusti. Senior male members of the family also
received titles of nobility, usually with the prefix Pangeran
RULES OF SUCCESSION:
Male primogeniture, the sons of Royal wives taking
precedence over those of commoners, with provision for
the adat council to approve the final decision.
ORDERS & DECORATIONS:
Abang Anoi bin Ade Toi. Salinan Salsilah Ketoeroenan
Sultan-Sultan dan Panembahan-Panembahan jang memerintah
di-Keradjaan Sintang diambil dari pertengahan. Sintang,
25th October 1934.
J.J.K. Enthoven. Bijdragen tot de Geographie van Borneo's
Wester-afdeeling. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1903.
J.U. Lontaan. Sejarah-Hukum Adat dan Adat Istiadat
Kalimantan-Barat. Pemda Tingkat I KalBar, Jakarta, 1975.
Mulhakim. Selayang Pandang Kerajaan Sintang. Kekerabatan
Istana Panembahan Sintang. Sintang, 1999.
Mulhakim. Silsilah Keturunan Raja-Raja Kerajaan Sintang.
Sintang, Kalimantan Barat, 2003.
Sejarah dan asal usul singkat Ade Mohamad Djoen Wakil
Penembahan Kerajaan Sintang 1913-1934. Sintang, 16th
A. Warteni. Susunan Silah-silah Keturunan Raja-Raja
Kerajaan Sintang. Budaga Museum Dara Juanti, Sintang, 28th
Sri Paduka Tuanku Panembahan Kusuma Negara.
Hans Hägerdal, Department of Humanities, University of
Ade Muhammad Iswadi, SE.
Father Jacques Maessen, SJ.
D. Tick, Pusat Dokumentasi Kerajaan-Kerajaan di Indonesia