PUDUKKOTTAI

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The Tondiman Dynasty

GENEALOGY

1640 – 1661 Raya Rahutta Raya Vajridu Raya Mannida Raya Avadai Raghunatha Tondaiman, of Karambakkudi, near Pudukkottai, eighteenth in descent from Tirumalai Tondaiman, the founder of the family who emigrated from Tirupati or Tirumalai in Tondaimanland (North Arcot district) and settled at Ambukkovil (22 miles north-east of Pudukkottai). A chieftain of the Kallars, he acquired lands through military prowess and service under Venkata Raya III ans Sri Ranga Raya of Vijayanagar. He conquered the lands of the Parava Raya family in 1639, the previous rulers of the area, and laying the foundations of the Pudukkottai state in 1640. Granted the title of Raya Rahutta Raya Vajridu Raya Mannida Raya by Sri Ranga Raya, King of Vijayanager. He d. at Pilaviduti, 1661, having had issue, four sons and one daughter:
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1661 - 1730 Raja Sri Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman, Raja of Pudukkottai. b. 1641, eldest son of Raya Rahutta Raya Vajridu, Mannida Raya Avadai Raghunatha Tondaiman, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father to his jagirs and estates, 1661. Confirmed in his possessions by the Setupati of Ramnad, ca 1675. He entered the service of the Nayaks and was appointed as Arasu Kavalar of Trichinopoly. Kilavan Setupati of Ramnad granted him the Thirumayam Fort and surrounding lands in reward for his assistance in defeating his enemies, capturing and training valuable elephants 1686. He constructed Pudukkottai (meaning ‘new fort’) as his seat, where he constructed a sumptuous palace surrounded by a small town. Setupati Thanda Deva confirmed him in his possessions in return for his help against Bhavani Sanakara in 1723, and also granted him the fort and district of Kizhanilai. He subsequently established his independence, allying himself alternatively with Tanjore, Madura or Ramnad in order to secure his position. m. six wives of the first rank and seven lesser wives. He d. at Pudukkottai, April 1730, having had issue, thirty two sons, including:
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1730 - 1769 Raja Sri Vijaya Raghunath Raya Tondaiman, Raja of Pudukkottai. b. at Pudukkottai, 25th August 1713, eldest son of M.R.Ry. Tirumalai Raya Tondaiman Sahib Avargal, by his first wife, Srimathi Nallayi Ayi Sahib Avargal, educ. privately. Appointed as Heir Apparent by his grandfather, following the death of his son in 1729. Succeeded on his death in April 1730 and formally installed at the Kudumiyamalai Temple. His surviving uncles opposed his succession and attempted to seize control of the state, when his loyal sirdars raised an army in his support and defeated them in battle. Ananda Rao of Tanjore overrun the whole of the Raja’s territories in 1733, then besieged him at Thirumayam Fort for almost a year, after destroying the palace and much of the town during the attacks. He then shifted to a new palace which he had recently constructed at Sivagangapuram, to the south-west of the old capital. Kolattur was annexed to his territories in 1750, following the extinction of that branch of the Tondaiman family. He declared in favour of the Nawab of the Carnatic and his British allies as early as 1752 then assisted in the various wars and campaigns against Chanda Sahib and the French, Tanjore, Madura and the Maravans. His greatest services were in supplying Trichnapoly during the various sieges, for which he had his country ravaged by the French in May 1754. He assisted the British again by sending 1,500 foot and 500 horse during the siege of Madras in 1759-1760, then formally accepted full British protection in 1763. A gifted musician and musicologist, who famously composed "Pancharatnam" or “the Five Jewels”. m. several wives including (a) Srimathi Rani Nallakatti Ayi Sahib Avergal. He d. at the Sivagnapuram Palace, Pudukkottai, 28th December 1769, having had issue, an only son:
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1769 - 1789 Raja Sri Raya Raghunath Tondaiman, Raja of Pudukkottai. b. at the Sivagnapuram Palace, Pudukkottai, May 1738, only son of Raja Sri Vijaya Raghunath Raya Tondaiman, Raja of Pudukkottai, by his wife, Srimathi Rani Nallakatti Ayi Sahib Avergal, educ. Privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 28th December 1769. Author of “Parvati Parinyamu”. m. eleven wives, including (a) 25th April 1761, … m. (b) Srimathi Rani Kallakkottai Ayi Sahib Avargal. m. (c) Srimathi Rani Muttalaka Ammal Ayi Sahib Avargal. He d.s.p.m. at Pudukkottai, 30th December 1789, having had issue, an only daughter:
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1789 - 1807 Raja Sri Vijaya Raghunath Tondaiman Bahadur, Raja of Pudukkottai. b. at Pudukkottai, May 1759, elder son of M.R.Ry. Tirumalai Rai Tondaiman Sahib Avargal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his first cousin without male heirs, 1789. Granted the hereditary title of Raja Bahadur, 17th October 1796. He assisted the British during the Poligar War in 1799, capturing and handing over the rebels Kattabommn and his brother to them. The fort and district of Kilanilai were ceded to him by the British in 1803 (originally promised by the ruler of Tanjore to his grandfather in 1750, but never honoured). m. (first) Srimathi Rani Brihannayaki Ayi Sahib Avargal. m. (second) Srimathi Rani Ayi Ammani Ayi Sahib Avargal (d. by sati at Karatope, 1st February 1807). He d. at Pudukkottai, 1st February 1807, having had issue, five sons of whom two survived him:
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1807 - 1825 Raja Sri Vijaya Raghunath Raya Tondaiman Bahadur, Raja of Pudukkottai. b. at Pudukkottai, 1797, elder son of Raja Sri Vijaya Raghunath Tondaiman Bahadur, Raja of Pudukkottai, by his second wife, Srimathi Rani Ayi Ammani Ayi Sahib Avargal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1st February 1807. Reigned under a Council of Superintendence until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 1817. During the regency, the British Guardian Lt-Col William Blackburn, completely raised Pudukkottai and rebuilt the town along modern lines, with wide and regular streets, white stuccoed and tiled houses and fine public buildings, all served by large tanks and irrigation wells. m. (first) 1812, a daughter of M.R.Ry. Sri Singappuli Aiyar. m. (second) 1812, a daughter of M.R.Ry. Sri Tirumalai Panrikondran, of Kallakurichi. He d. after a short illness, at Pudukkottai, 4th June 1825, having had issue, one son and one daughter: 
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continued on the next page.
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