1734 – 1766 Shrimant Sardar Malharrao I Holkar I Subadar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains. b. at Hol, near Jejuri, in the Poona district, 16th March 1693, elder son of Shrimant Khandoji Holkar, by his wife, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Jiwaji Bai Holkar, a sister of Shrimant Bhojirajrao Sabaji Bargal, of Talode, in Khandesh, educ. privately. He entered the service of the Maratha Peshwa in 1717, rose to the rank of a Sardar, and appointed as one of the three sardars charged with collecting the revenues of Malwa 1724, prom to the rank of a commander of 5,000 horse 1726. Granted a jagir of eleven mahals, including Zubawa and Petlawad, 6th August 1727. Granted the rank of a Saranjami Sardar together with 74 parganas in southern Malwa 3rd October 1730. Granted an equal share in the revenues collected from the Maratha possessions in southern Malwa by the Peshwa, and formally invested with the joint government of the province alongside Scindia, at Poona, 2nd November 1731 (confirmed as 35% of the total revenues 20th December 1731). Received a grant for two-fifths of Prant Malwa for the maintenance of his army, including the territories of Indore, Depalpur and Betma, 22nd June 1732. His grants were made hereditary to his issue by Gautama Bai, and he received further grants in the Deccan, the district of Maheshwar, together with nine other villages in Indore, and his title was elevated from Rajashri to Subadar Bahadur 20th January 1734 (the khasgi grants marking the foundation of Indore state). One of the foremost commanders of the Maratha confedaracy, he participated in the great victory near Delhi in 1736, and the defeat of the Nizam at Tal Bhopal in 1738. He also wrested Bassein from the Portuguese in 1739. Settled at Indore, where he constructed the old rajwada 1740. Received Rampura, Bhanpura and Tonk in 1743, for the assistance given to Madho Singh of Jaipur in his contest with Ishwari Singh. Granted an Imperial sardeshmuckhi for Chandore, in reward for his gallantry in the Rohilla campaign of 1748. Received a grant for the parganas of Fatehpur, Kunwarpur, Katia and Gujar, 1757. Severely defeated at the Battle of Panipat on 7th January 1761, losing many of his possessions in North India soon afterwards. Received a fresh sanad for two parganas of Malwa, a taluka and village in Khandesh, and the whole of sarkar Bijagarh (excepting 5 parganas in Khanhesh) 13th June 1763. m. (first) at Talode, Khandesh, 7th June 1701, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Gautamabai Sahib Holkar [Gautamaji Sahiba] (b. at Talode, Khandesh, ca March 1694; d. at the Rajwada, Indore, 29th September 1761), received one half of the jagir of Budha near Mandasor conferred on her brother, Sardar Narayan Rao Bhojiraj Bargal, granted by the Maharana of Udaipur Mewar, which she renamed Malhargarh, granted a khasgi sanad valued at Rs 7 lakhs 1734, daughter of his maternal uncle, Shrimant Sardar Bhojiraj Sabaji Bargal, of Talode, Khandesh. m. (second) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Banabai Sahib Holkar. m. (third) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Dwarkabai Sahib Holkar. m. (1) (by khanda rite, or ‘sword marriage’) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Harkubai Sahib Holkar [Khanda Rani] (b. 1721), née Harkunwar, a lady from the Sirwi tribe. He d. at Alampur, Bhind, 20th May 1766 (crem there and his ashes interred at the Malharrao Holkar Chhatrisamadhi) (succ. by his grandson), having had issue one son and two daughters:
1) Shrimant Sardar Khanderao Holkar Bahadur. b. 1723 (s/o Gautama Bai), educ. privately. Heir Apparent to his father from 20th January 1734. m. four wives, including (first)at Chaundi, Jamkhed, Auzangabad, 1733, as her first husband, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Devi Shri Ahilyabai Sahib Holkar (b. at Chaundi, Jamkhed, Auzangabad, 1st April 1725; m. second ca. 1755, Shrimant Sardar Tukojirao I Holkar IV Subadar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains - see below), who acted as Regent from 1767 until her death, 13th August 1795, daughter of Shrimant Sardar Mankoji Shinde, Patil of Chaundi, in the Auzangabad district, by his wife, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Sushilabai Shinde. He d. from a cannon shot during the siege (Jan-May 1754) of Khumbher, near Deeg, 27th February 1754 (when three of his wives and seven maids or concubines committed sati), having had issue, one son and one daughter:
a) Shrimant Sardar Malerao Holkar II Subadar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains - see below.
a) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Muktabai Sahib Phanse. b. 1748 (d/o Ahilya Bai), educ. privately. m. Shrimant Sardar Yeshwantrao Phanse, of Tarana (d. of cholera, 3rd December 1791). She d. by sati after the death of her husband, 4th December 1791, leaving an only son:
i) Shrimant Sardar Nathobarao Holkar Bahadur (surnamed Phanse before his adoption). Adopted by his grand mother Ahilyabai as her Heir-Apparent. m. (first) at Maheshwar Fort, 7th May 1780, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Balabai Sahib Holkar (b. 1772; d. by sati after the death of her husband, 16th November 1790), grand daughter of a brother of Ahilyabai. m. (second) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Gauribai Sahib Holkar (b. 1780; d. by sati after the death of her husband, 16th November 1790). He d.s.p. of consumption, 15th November 1790.
1) Shrimant Udabai Sahib Holkar (d/o Harku Bai).
2) Soubhagyavati Santubai Sahib Lambhate [Rama Bai] (d/o Harku Bai). m. Shrimant Sardar …Rao Lambhate, Saranjami Sardar and jagirdar of Machalpur.
Shrimant Sardar Malharrao I Holkar I Subadar Bahadur, also left an illegitimate son by a daasi, or domestic servant:
3) Rajashri Bharmal Dada Sahib Holkar [Daasiputra]. Officer-in-charge Khasgi Dept at Maheshwar 1799. He d. aged 98 years.
1766 – 1767 Shrimant Sardar Malerao Holkar II Subadar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains. b. at Debalpur, 1745, only son of Shrimant Sardar Khanderao Holkar Bahadur, by his first wife, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Devi Ahilyabai Sahib Holkar, Ruler of Indore, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his paternal grand father, 20th May 1766. Invested by the Peshwa, at Poona, 23rd July 1766. Developed signs of insanity, shortly after his investiture. m. (first) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Mainabai Sahib Holkar (d. by sati after the death of her husband, 10th March 1767). m. (second) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Peertabai Sahib Holkar (d. by sati after the death of her husband, 10th March 1767). He d.s.p. at the Rajwada, Indore, 10th March 1767
1767 - 1795 Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Devi Shri Ahilya Bai Sahib Holkar, Ruler of Indore*. b. at Chaundi, Jamkhed, Auzangabad, 1st April 1725, daughter of Shrimant Sardar Mankoji Shinde, Patil of Chaundi, in the Auzangabad district, by his wife, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Sushilabai Shinde, educ. privately. Assumed power as Regent shortly after the mourning period for her son in April 1767. Confirmed by the Peshwa in the family khasgi and inami jagirs, 11th December 1767. Established her capital at Maheshwar, and continued as joint (civil) ruler of the state until her death. m. at Chaundi, Jamkhed, Auzangabad, 1733, Shrimant Sardar Khanderao Holkar Subedar Bahadur (b. 1723; d. from a cannon shot during the siege (Jan-May 1754) of Khumbher, near Deeg, 27th February 1754), son and heir of Shrimant Sardar Malharrao I Holkar I Subadar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains, by his principal wife, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Gautamabai Sahib Holkar, daughter of his maternal uncle, Shrimant Sardar Bhojiraj Sabaji Bargal, of Talode, in Khandesh. She d. at Maheshwar Fort, 13th August 1795 (succ. by her second husband), having had issue (see above and below).
* Ahilya Bai is placed here as a ruler in her own right, in accordance with family tradition and subsequent historical writing. However, contemporary records from the Poona court indicate that the Peshwa appointed Tukojirao as the Subedar of the Holkar Domains, in succession to Malerao. Her true position being, at least as civil administrator of the family estates, at best as regent during Tukoji's frequent absence on campaign.
1767 - 1797 Shrimant Sardar Tukojirao I Holkar IV Subadar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains. b. 1723, second son of Shrimant Tanuji Holkar. Appointed by the Peshwa as Saranjami Sardar and C-in-C of the Holkar military forces, granted a khilat recognising him as titular head of the Holkar clan, and formally invested as Subadar of the Holkar Domains, at the Rajwada, Indore, 3rd June 1767. His seal was engraved with the legend “Tukoji, son of Malharji, devoted attendant to the feet of the husband of Mhalsa” at the insistence of Ahilya Bai to give a semblance of continuity. However, as a matter of actual fact, he was never adopted by her. Thereafter served as joint (military) ruler of the Holkar state. A distinguished military commander he defeated the Jats at Goverdhan in 1769, and Bharatpur in 1773. He defeated the Company’s forces at Borghat in 1777, receiving the rank of Saranjami Sardar together with considerable lands in Bundelkhand and Khandesh as his reward. Succeeded as sole ruler on the death of his wife, 13th August 1795. Abdicated in favour of his eldest son and resumed the role of Army C-in-C and Regent, 29th January 1797. His latter years were spent fighting fruitless disputes with the Scindias. m. (first) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Taibai Sahiba Holkar. m. (seecond) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rakhmabai Sahiba Holkar. He d. at Poona, 15th August 1797, having had issue:
1) Shrimant Sardar Kashirao Holkar V Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains (s/o a legitimate wife) - see below.
2) Shrimant Rajashi Malharrao Holkar. b. after April 1767 (s/o a legitimate wife), educ. privately. Contested the succession on the death of his father in August 1797. m. (first) at the Rajwada, Indore, 10th February 1789, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Amanbai [Emabai] Sahib Holkar (k. (poisoned by Nawab Ghafur Khan of Jaora) ca 30th December 1811), grand niece of Ahilyabai Holkar, and daughter of a daughter of Shrimant Mahadji Shinde Chondekar. m. (second) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Jijibai Sahib Holkar. He was k. in battle at Poona, 24th September 1797, having had issue, an only posthumous son:
a) Shrimant Sardar Sawai Khanderao Holkar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains – see below
Shrimant Sardar Tukojirao I Holkar IV Subadar Bahadur, also recognised the following natural issue:
3) Shrimant Sardar Vithojirao [Ithoba] Holkar, educ. privately. Escaped from Poona after the death of his brother in September 1797, and began plundering the Peshwa’s territories. Apprehended and imprisoned by Scindia’s forces. He was k. (trampled by elephants) on the orders of the Peshwa, at Poona, 16th April 1801, leaving issue, two sons and one daughter:
a) H.H. Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Harirao Holkar IX Bahadur, Maharaja of Indore – see below.
b) Shrimant Rajashri Martandrao Holkar.
a) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Mainabai Sahib. m. Shrimant Sardar Govind Rao, sometime cdt of a paigah at Cholee Mahasir, brother of H.H. Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Ghainabai Sahib Holkar, daughter of Shrimant Sardar Sevajirao Girguna. She had issue, two children.
4) H.H. Ali Jah, Zubdat ul-Umara, Bahadur ul-Mulk, Farzand-i-Arjmand, Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Shrimant Jaswantrao Holkar VI Subadar Bahadur, Nusrat Jang, Subadar of the Holkar Domains. - see below.
5) Shrimant Rajashi Kalsirao Holkar. He was k. at Beyigur, 1801.
1) Shrimant …Bai Sahib Holkar (full sister of Jaswantrao). She d. shortly after her brother, November 1811.
1797 - 1799 Shrimant Sardar Kashirao Holkar V Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains. b. 1764, eldest son of Shrimant Sardar Tukojirao I Holkar IV Bahadur, Maharaja of Indore, by his wife, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Devi Ahilyabai Sahib Holkar, educ. privately. Succeeded on the abdication of his father and invested as Subadar by the Peshwa, at Poona, 29th January 1797. Supported by Scindia in the succession dispute with his younger half-brother, but forced to yield a huge number of territories in return. Deposed during his absence from Maheshwar, by his half-brother, Jaswantrao, January 1799. Attempted a reconciliation and returned to Maheshwar in August 1801, but rejoined Scindia in September, by whom he was soon confined with other members of the Holkar family at the fort of Asirgarh. Subsequently released and allowed to live under the protection of Scindia in a house near Burhanpur, but later confined at the fort of Galna. m. (first) at the Rajwada, Indore, 1776, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati ...bai Sahiba. m. (second) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Anandibai Sahiba (k. with her husband, before 16th February 1808). He was k.s.p. by Chimna Bhao Sahib on the secret orders of his brother Jaswant Rao Holkar, during the Bhil insurrection, in the mountains near Chandor, before 16th February 1808.
1799 - 1807 Shrimant Sardar Sawai Khanderao Holkar Bahadur, Subadar of the Holkar Domains. b. posthumously, at Poona, ca 24th November 1797 (two months after the death of his father), only son of Shrimant Rajashi Malharrao Holkar, by his second wife, Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Jijibai Sahib Holkar, educ. privately. Seized by Scindia a few months after his birth, and thereafter kept confined at the fort of Asirgarh since July 1801. Proclaimed in absentia as rightful ruler by his uncle Jaswantrao, aafter he had seized control of the Holkar domains by deposing his brother Kashirao in January 1799. Released from captivity 24th March 1803, and turned over by Scindia to the guardianship of his uncle, Jaswantrao, 9th July 1803. Received at his uncle’s camp, where he received the fealty of the military and civil officers of the Holkar Domains, 12th July 1803. In 1805, he was surrendered as an honourable hostage by Jaswantrao to his Pathan officers as surety for the payment of arrears of pay due to the Deccan Horse, whom he had wished to disband. Proclaimed by them as head of the House of Holkar, but subsequently returned to the custordy of his uncle in September 1806 after the latter succeeded in exacting tribute from the Maharaja of Jaipur, which he then used to pay off his mutinous troops. He d. from cholera, at Shahpur, near Kotah, Rajputana, 22nd February 1807 (not without suspicion that he had been poisoned by Jaswantrao).