EGYPT

 

The Muhammad 'Ali Dynasty

GLOSSARY
Agha (or aga): title of Turkish origin meaning commander, junior to Bey. Dissused as a title of honour by the second half of the nineteenth century.

al-Waguih
: 'The Honourable', a form of address used in society for any wealthy man or son of a notable who did not enjoy the title of Pasha or Bey.
Amir: Prince.
Amira: Princess.
Amir al-Alai: Colonel (army or police), Captain (REN) or, Group Captain (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Bey.

Amir al-Liwa
: Major-General (army or police), Rear-Admiral (REN) or, Air Vice-Marshal (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Pasha.
Arnauti
(or Arnawudi): Albanian.
A'yan: indigenous class of notables, landholders, usually of Arabic origin.
'Azama: the style assumed by Husain Kamil and Fuad I while Sultans of Egypt, translated as Hautesse in French, Altezza in Italian and Highness in English.
Bey (or Beg): title of Turkish origin and junior to Pasha, retained and conferred in two ranks after 1922. Also accorded as a courtesy title to the sons of a Pasha.
Bimbashi: Major (army or police), Lieutenant-Commander (REN) or, Squadron Leader (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Bey.

Daulatlu Fakhamatlu
(or Devletlu Fekhametlu): the style enjoyed by the Vali of Egypt until the reign of Khedive Ismail, equivalent to 'His Highness'.
Divan Effendisi: Aide de Camp.
Effendi (or Efendi): a title of Turkish origin, analageous to Esquire, and junior to Bey.
Effendimiz (or Efendimiz or Efendina): A form of address analageous to Monseigeur and frequently used for members of the Royal Family.
Ferik: Lieutenant-General (army), Vice-Admiral (REN) or Air Chief Marshal (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Pasha.
Hakim: provincial governor.
Hakim 'Amm: Governor-General, especially of the Sudan.
Hanim (or Hanem): see Khanum.
Hautesse: style accorded to the Sultan and Sultana of Egypt after 1914, usually translated as Highness in English and Altezza in Italian.
Hazrat (or Hadret): "Excellency".

Hazrat
Sahib ud-Daula (or Hadret Saheb Al Dawla): "His Excellency, the Lord of the State". A style attached to the highest court rank (termed Rutbat al-Riyasat) and accorded to gentlemen outside the Royal Family.
Hazrat Sahib ul-Izza (or Hadret Saheb Al-Izzah): style attached to the fourth highest rank accorded to gentlemen.
Hazrat Sahib al-Jalala: the style used for the King after 1922, equivalent to 'His Majesty'.
Hazrat Sahib ul-Ma'ali (or Hadret Saheb Al-Mâali): "His Excellency the Sublime Lord", a style attached to the third highest rank (termed Rutbatal-Imtiaz) accorded to gentlemen.
Hazrat Sahib ul-Makam ur-Rafi (or Hadret Saheb Al-Makam Al-Rafie): a style attached to the second highest court rank. Conferred for life, after 1936, on recipients of the Chain of Fu'ad I.
Hazrat Sahib us-Sa'ada (or Hadret Saheb Al-Sâadah): a style attached to the fourth highest court rank accorded to gentlemen.
Hazrat Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malik: the style used for Royal Princes, equvalent to 'His Royal Highness'.
Hazrat Sahibat al-Jalala: the style used for the Queen after 1922, equivalent to 'Her Majesty'.

Hazrat Sahibat us-Sumuw al-Malik
: the style used for Royal Princesses, equvalent to 'Her Royal Highness'.
Hukumdar (or Hukumdar 'Umum): 'Commissioner', the title of the Governor-General of the Sudan until ca. 1885.
Jalal: 'Majesty'.
Jalal al-Malik: 'His Majesty the King'.
Jalal al-Malika: 'Her Majesty the Queen'.
Kadin: junior wife, other than one of the four official wives permitted by the laws of Islam.

Kaid
: General Officer Commanding.
Kaimakam: Lieutenant-Colonel (army or police), Commander (REN) or, Wing Commander (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Bey.
Kalfa: slave.
Khanum (or Hanim/Hanem): 'Lady', feminine form of Khan. A title of Turkish origin, enjoyed by the wives and daughters of a Pasha.
Khediva: title used for the wife of the Khedive.
Khedive: 'master, lord, sovereign'. A title translated as Viceroy, used informally for the ruler of Egypt since the reign of Muhammad 'Ali the Great, and officially from 17th May 1866.
Liwa: Major-General (army or police), Rear-Admiral (REN) or, Air Vice-Marshal (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Pasha.
Ma'ali: Sublime.
Majlis: council, assembly, or parliament.
Majlis al-Balat: Royal Council of State.

Majlis-i-Ahkam
: Council for the Promulgation of Laws.
Majlis-i-Tanzimat: Council for the Reformation of Old Laws and the Promulgation of New Laws.
Malik: King, the official title of the ruler of Egypt adopted 15th March 1922.
Malika: Queen.
Mamluk: white slave.
Mir: Turkish corruption of Amir, commander.
Miralai: Turkish corruption of Amir al-Alai, Colonel (army or police), Captain (REN) or, Group Captain (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Bey.
Mirliva: Turkish corruption of Amir al-Liwa, Major-General (army or police), Rear-Admiral (REN) or, Air Vice-Marshal (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Pasha.
Mîrmîran: Turkish corruption of Amir ul-Umara, Lieutenant-General (army), Vice-Admiral (REN) or Air Chief Marshal (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Pasha.
Mudir: manager.
Mudir 'Umum: governor of an important province, e.g. Dafur, Equatoria.
Mulazim: Lieutenant.

Mulazim
Awal: First Lieutenant (army or police), Sub-Lieutenant (REN) or, Flying Officer (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Effendi.
Mulazim Tani: Second Lieutenant (army or police), Midshipman (REN) or, Pilot Officer (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Effendi.
Mushir: Field Marshal (army), Admiral of the Fleet (REN) or, Marshal of the Royal Egyptian Air Force (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Pasha.
Nabil: Lord.
Nabila: Lady.
Nishan (or Nichan): order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
Pasha (or Basha in Arabic): title of Turkish origin, retained and conferred after 1922 in three ranks.
Sahib: Lord.
Sagashoshi: Adjutant Major. The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Effendi.
Sahib ul-Izza (or Saheb Al-Izzah): style attached to the fifth highest rank accorded to gentlemen.
Sahib ul-Majd: 'noble lord', the style accorded to members of the Royal Family enjoying the title of Nabil, equivalent to 'His Lordship'.
Sahibat ul-Majd: 'noble lady', the style accorded to members of the Royal Family enjoying the title of Nabila, equivalent to 'Her Ladyship'.
Saraskar: commander-in-chief'.
Saréchesme: 'commander of a thousand', an old Turkish military rank equivalent to Colonel.
Sultan: ruler, title used for the ruler of Egypt between 1914 and 1922.
Sultana: title used for the wife of the ruler of Egypt between 1914 and 1922.
Vali (or Vali): Governor.
Valida Effendimiz (or Validé Efendimiz or Walda Efendimiz): title borne by the mother of the reigning Khedive.
Valida Pasha Effendimiz (or Validé Pasha Efendimiz or Walda Pasha Efendina): the title used by the mother of Khedive Ismail Pasha.
Valida Sultana Effendimiz (or Validé Sultan Efendimiz or Walda Sultane Efendina): Sultana Mother, title used for the mother of Khedive 'Abbas Hilmi II.
Wazir (or Vizier): Minister of State.
Yuzbashi (or Youzbashi): Captain (army or police), Lieutenant (REN) or, Flight Lieutenant (REAF). The holder of the rank enjoyed the personal title of Effendi.
Zevat-i-kiram: the term apllied to the Turko-Circassian élite comprising the top three ranks of the military and bureaucracy.
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