Al-Hashimi Dynasty

of

Mecca, the Hijaz, Iraq and the Jordan

BRIEF HISTORY

The Hashimite dynasty is one of the oldest Muslim dynasties on earth. They were founded by Hashim, grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and grandson of Qusai, King of Mecca. Ancestor of the Sharifs of Tabaristan, the Sultans and Kings of Morocco, the Hamudites of Spain, Idrisids of Fez, Libya and Asir, and many other realms. They are also the descendants of the Prophet, through his daughter Fatima and her husband, ‘Ali, the fourth Caliph and first Imam. Their elder son, Hasan, the fifth Caliph and second Imam, being the ancestor of the Sharifan family. Sharif Qutada Abu Aziz, seventeenth in descent from ‘Ali, successfully conquered Mecca in 1201. Although the accepted Mamluk and later Turkish suzerainty in 1517, Qutada’s descendants continued to hold the office of Guardian of the Holy places for eight hundred years. During the Great War in 1916, the then Grand Sharif Hussein ibn ‘Ali proclaimed the independence of the Arabs. Although he initially assumed the leadership of all the Arabs, the lack of allied recognition and opposition from Imam Yahya of Yemen and ibn Saud of Najd resulted in his recognition as King of Hijaz alone. Armed conflict with the Saudis continued after the conclusion of the Great War, eventually forcing Hussein to give up his throne in favour of his eldest son, ‘Ali. King ‘Ali, experienced no greater success against ibn Saud and was himself forced to evacuate Mecca and Medina in 1925, to avoid bloodshed and profanation of the Holy cities. His younger brothers, ‘Abdu’llah and Faisal, had become Amir of Transjordan (later King of Jordan) and King of Iraq, respectively. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
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GLOSSARY:
Amir (or Emir): title meaning Prince, or commander, first conferred on Yahya II by the Turkish Sultan. Thereafter, conferred on all his successors when appointed as Grand Sharif.
Amir al-Mumenin: Commander of the Faithful.
Amira (or Emira): Princess.
Bey (or Beg): title of Turkish origin, junior to Pasha.
Caliph (more properly, Caliph al-Islam): successor, i.e. head of the Islamic faith in succession to the Prophet.
Grand Sharif: title conferred on the member of the Hashimite Sharifan dynasty appointed as guardian of the holy places. First assumed by Abdullah I in 1630, thereafter used by all his successors.
Malika: Queen.
Nishan: Turkish order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
Pasha: title of Turkish origin, senior to Bey.
Sayyid: hereditary title meaning Lord. A title held by male descendants of Hussein, younger twin son of Ali, the 4th Caliph by his wife Fatima, daughter of the Prophet.
Sayyida: hereditary title for a lady, descended from Hussein in the male line. Copyright© Christopher Buyers
Shaikh (or Sheikh): hereditary title of an Arab tribal chieftain.
Shaikha (or Sheikha): feminine of Shaikh.
Sharif: hereditary title meaning Noble. A title held by male members of the Hashimite dynasty, descended in the male line from Hassan, elder twin son of Ali, the 4th Caliph by his wife Fatima, daughter of the Prophet.
Sharifa: hereditary title for a lady of the Hashimite dynasty, descended from Hassan in the male line.
Wisam: order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
SOURCES: Copyright© Christopher Buyers
Almanach de Gotha: annuaire généalogique, diplomatique et statistique, Justes Perthes, Gotha, 1924-1944.
Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & The Middle East. Burke’s Publications Ltd., London, 1980.
Shirin Devrim, A Turkish Tapestry; The Shakirs of Istanbul. Quartet Books, London, 1994.
The Hashemites http://king hussein.gov.jo/hashemites.html
Yilmaz Oztuna, Devletler ve Hanedanlar. Volume II: Hashimiler. Kultur Bakanligi Yayinlari: 1101, Ankara, 1989.
A. de L. Rush (ed.), Ruling Families of Arabia. Volume 8: Family Trees. Archive Editions, Archive International Group, Melksham, Oxon. 1991.
Alan de Lacy Rush (ed.). Records of the Hashimite Dynasties, A Twentieth Century Documentary History. Archive Editions, Chppenham, Oxon., 1995.
Stanford Smith, H. The Minor Non-European Dynasties. Material not included in Vol. 1 of Manuel d’histoire, etc. by A.M.H.J. Stokvis. Manuscript, 1951.
A.M.H.J. Stokvis. Manuel d’histoire, de généalogie et de chronologie de tous les Etats du globe, etc. B.M. Israël, Leiden 1888.
Who’s Who in the Arab World, Publitec Publications, London, 1967-1999.

SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Faysal Adnan.
Yahya Adnan.
Dr Morris Bierbrier, FSA.
Essam Al-Ghalib.
Sharif Ali bin Zied Huseein.
Raad Ghazi Al-Rifai.
Aoun Sharaf.
Marc Van Dorst.
David Williamson.
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